How to format your references using the International Journal of Impotence Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Impotence Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
de Duve C. The onset of selection. Nature 2005; 433: 581–582.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekström G, Stark CP. Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science 2013; 339: 1416–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajagopalan J, Han JH, Saif MTA. Plastic deformation recovery in freestanding nanocrystalline aluminum and gold thin films. Science 2007; 315: 1831–1834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Loulergue L, Schilt A, Spahni R, Masson-Delmotte V, Blunier T, Lemieux B et al. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 2008; 453: 383–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weinberg MA, Froum SJ. The Dentist’s Drug and Prescription Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,: West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
Quarteroni A. Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave. 4th ed. 2014. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Fournier-Viger P, Nkambou R, Faghihi U, Nguifo EM. Mining Temporal Patterns to Improve Agents Behavior: Two Case Studies. In: Cao L (ed). Data Mining and Multi-agent Integration. Springer US: Boston, MA, 2009, pp 77–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Impotence Research.

Blog post
Andrew D. Relax, The Expansion Of The Universe Is Still Accelerating. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Executive Guide: Best Practices in Achieving Consistent, Accurate Physical Counts of Inventory and Related Property. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richard K. College Programs in Women’s Prisons: Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Higher Education Behind Bars. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Mystery of the Missing Tenants. New York Times. 2002; : 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Impotence Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Impot. Res.
ISSN (print)0955-9930
ISSN (online)1476-5489

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