How to format your references using the Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell, J.F. If a Job Is Worth Doing, It Is Worth Doing Twice. Nature 2013, 496, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichenbach, A.; Pannicke, T. Neuroscience. A New Glance at Glia. Science 2008, 322, 693–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chaudhari, N.K.; Song, M.Y.; Yu, J.-S. Heteroatom-Doped Highly Porous Carbon from Human Urine. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5221.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y.-C.; Huang, T.-K.; Tung, S.-H.; Wu, T.-M.; Lin, J.-J. Self-Assembled Clay Films with a Platelet-Void Multilayered Nanostructure and Flame-Blocking Properties. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fingerloos, F.; Hegger, J.; Zilch, K. EUROCODE 2 Für Deutschland; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2016; ISBN 9783433605103.
An edited book
Ordered Structures and Applications: Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference), 22-26 July 2013, Leiden, the Netherlands; de Jeu, M., de Pagter, B., van Gaans, O., Veraar, M., Eds.; Trends in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319278407.
A chapter in an edited book
van Ooijen, P.M.A.; Kristanto, W.; de Jonge, G.J.; Kuehnel, C.; Hennemuth, A.; Boskamp, T.; Groen, J.M.; Broekema, A. Multi-Dimensional Computed Cardiac Visualization. In Coronary Radiology; Oudkerk, M., Reiser, M.F., Eds.; Medical Radiology; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 297–338 ISBN 9783540329831.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomimetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Chimpanzees Are Over-Hunting Their Prey To Local Extinction Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: DHS Has Taken Steps to Enhance International Aviation Security and Facilitate Compliance with International Standards, but Challenges Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Child, R.J. The Evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and Related AUX/IAA Genes in Angiosperms. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Left Out of a Tiebreaker Game, Mexico Protests, but to No Avail. New York Times 2017, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomimetics
AbbreviationBiomimetics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-7673

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