How to format your references using the Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shea, K. Ecology. How the wood moves. Science 2007, 315, 1231–1232.
A journal article with 2 authors
Head, J.J.; Polly, P.D. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function. Nature 2015, 520, 86–89.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerke, J.; Lorenz, K.; Cohen, B. Genetic interactions between transcription factors cause natural variation in yeast. Science 2009, 323, 498–501.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chiang, S.H.; Baumann, C.A.; Kanzaki, M.; Thurmond, D.C.; Watson, R.T.; Neudauer, C.L.; Macara, I.G.; Pessin, J.E.; Saltiel, A.R. Insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation requires the CAP-dependent activation of TC10. Nature 2001, 410, 944–948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl, B.; Herrenknecht, M.; Maidl, U.; Wehrmeyer, G. Maschineller Tunnelbau im Schildvortrieb; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783433600757.
An edited book
Garcia, E. Regulated Open Multi-Agent Systems (ROMAS): A Multi-Agent Approach for Designing Normative Open Systems; Giret, A., Botti, V., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319115719.
A chapter in an edited book
DeMuri, G.P.; Wald, E.R. Microbiology of Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children. In Diseases of the Sinuses: A Comprehensive Textbook of Diagnosis and Treatment; Chang, C.C., Incaudo, G.A., Gershwin, M.E., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2014; pp. 89–97 ISBN 9781493902644.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomimetics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. San Andreas Fault Is “Locked, Loaded And Ready To Go,” Says Leading Seismologist Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Tax System Modernization: Status of On-Line Files Initiative and Telecommunications Planning; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aquino-Centeno, S. Contesting social memories and identities in the Zapotec Sierra of Oaxaca, Mexico. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. Sailing Into Storms and Solitude. New York Times 2002, 812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomimetics
AbbreviationBiomimetics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-7673

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