How to format your references using the Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berry, D.A. The Science of Doping. Nature 2008, 454, 692–693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barrangou, R.; Klaenhammer, T.R. Microbiology: Bacteria Get Vaccinated. Nature 2014, 513, 175–176.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G.W.; Goffredi, S.K.; Vrijenhoek, R.C. Osedax: Bone-Eating Marine Worms with Dwarf Males. Science 2004, 305, 668–671.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, M.; Yeh, F.; Tepp, W.H.; Dean, C.; Johnson, E.A.; Janz, R.; Chapman, E.R. SV2 Is the Protein Receptor for Botulinum Neurotoxin A. Science 2006, 312, 592–596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good, P.I. Introduction to Statistics Through Resampling Methods and R; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118497593.
An edited book
Becoming a World-Class University: The Case of King Abdulaziz University; Tayeb, O., Zahed, A., Ritzen, J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319263793.
A chapter in an edited book
Frischkorn, C.; Wolf, M.; Höfer, U.; Güdde, J.; Saalfrank, P.; Nest, M.; Klamroth, T.; Willig, F.; Ernstorfer, R.; Gundlach, L.; et al. Ultrafast Dynamics of Photoinduced Processes at Surfaces and Interfaces. In Analysis and Control of Ultrafast Photoinduced Reactions; Kühn, O., Wöste, L., Eds.; Chemical Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 387–484 ISBN 9783540680376.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomimetics.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Why You Should Never Feed Bread To Ducks Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office A Capsule Version of: Nanomanufacturing--Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2014;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domec, B.S. Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. June’s Most Popular Properties. New York Times 2017, RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomimetics
AbbreviationBiomimetics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-7673

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