How to format your references using the Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. Policy-Makers in Many Areas Need Input from Scientists to Help Them Make Sound Decisions. Nature 2003, 422, 452–453.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bartek, J.; Lukas, J. Cell Biology. Balancing Life-or-Death Decisions. Science 2006, 314, 261–262.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gruber, N.; Keeling, C.D.; Bates, N.R. Interannual Variability in the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Sink. Science 2002, 298, 2374–2378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mundil, R.; Ludwig, K.R.; Metcalfe, I.; Renne, P.R. Age and Timing of the Permian Mass Extinctions: U/Pb Dating of Closed-System Zircons. Science 2004, 305, 1760–1763.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fjeld, R.A.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Compton, K.L. Quantitative Environmental Risk Analysis for Human Health; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2007; ISBN 9780470096208.
An edited book
Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management: 7th International Conference, PAKM 2008, Yokohama, Japan, November 22-23, 2008. Proceedings; Yamaguchi, T., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; Vol. 5345; ISBN 9783540894469.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaki, S.; Clarke, E.; Grumberg, O.; Ouaknine, J.; Sharygina, N.; Touili, T.; Veith, H. State/Event Software Verification for Branching-Time Specifications. In Integrated Formal Methods: 5th International Conference, IFM 2005, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 29 - December 2, 2005. Proceedings; Romijn, J., Smith, G., Pol, J. van de, Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; pp. 53–69 ISBN 9783540304920.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomimetics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The African Snakebite ‘Crisis’ Is Nothing New: We’ve Been Worried About Antivenom For Decades Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Launch Services New Entrant Certification Guide; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2013;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pigott, C. School Resource Officers and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Discovering Trends of Expulsions in Public Schools. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Palmer, E.; Otis, J. Tradition of Helping Neediest Cases Inspires Readers to Give Back. New York Times 2017, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomimetics
AbbreviationBiomimetics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-7673

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