How to format your references using the Biomimetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomimetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cavalleri, A. Chemistry. All at Once. Science 2007, 318, 755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Norris, D.P.; Grimes, D.T. Developmental Biology. Cilia Discern Left from Right. Science 2012, 338, 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Csankovszki, G.; McDonel, P.; Meyer, B.J. Recruitment and Spreading of the C. Elegans Dosage Compensation Complex along X Chromosomes. Science 2004, 303, 1182–1185.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gaidos, E.; Haghighipour, N.; Agol, E.; Latham, D.; Raymond, S.; Rayner, J. New Worlds on the Horizon: Earth-Sized Planets Close to Other Stars. Science 2007, 318, 210–213.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertein, J.-C.; Ceschi, R. Discrete Stochastic Processes and Optimal Filtering; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118600351.
An edited book
Hydrological Processes of the Danube River Basin: Perspectives from the Danubian Countries; Brilly, M., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; ISBN 9789048134229.
A chapter in an edited book
Žižka, J.; Burda, K.; Dařena, F. Clustering a Very Large Number of Textual Unstructured Customers’ Reviews in English. In Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications: 15th International Conference, AIMSA 2012, Varna, Bulgaria, September 12-15, 2012. Proceedings; Ramsay, A., Agre, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 38–47 ISBN 9783642331848.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomimetics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. A Rare Transit Of Mercury Will Take Place This Monday - Here’s How To Watch It Live Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns Would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System [Reissued on September 18, 2012]; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eldridge, Z. The Empowerment of a Forgotten Population. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ellsberg, S.S. Letters; THE ROAD AHEAD. New York Times 1967, The New York Times MagazineSM10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomimetics
AbbreviationBiomimetics (Basel)
ISSN (online)2313-7673

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