How to format your references using the Crime Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oster, G. (2002). Brownian ratchets: Darwin’s motors. Nature, 417(6884), 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler, J. S., & Altshuler, D. (2004). Organizational challenges in clinical genomic research. Nature, 429(6990), 478–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zahidi, E. M., Oudghiri-Hassani, H., & McBreen, P. H. (2001). Formation of thermally stable alkylidene layers on a catalytically active surface. Nature, 409(6823), 1023–1026.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hornbaker, D. J., Kahng, S. J., Misra, S., Smith, B. W., Johnson, A. T., Mele, E. J., et al. (2002). Mapping the one-dimensional electronic States of nanotube peapod structures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5556), 828–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brodsky, B. S., & Stanley, B. (2013). The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Primer. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kaltschmitt, M., Themelis, N. J., Bronicki, L. Y., Söder, L., & Vega, L. A. (Eds.). (2013). Renewable Energy Systems. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cassotta, S., Hossain, K., Ren, J., & Goodsite, M. E. (2016). Climate Change and Human Security in a Regulatory Multilevel and Multidisciplinary Dimension: The Case of the Arctic Environmental Ocean. In W. Leal Filho, H. Musa, G. Cavan, P. O’Hare, & J. Seixas (Eds.), Climate Change Adaptation, Resilience and Hazards (pp. 71–91). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 3). Primordial Cold Spot Caused By Supervoid. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Cooperative Actions Result in More Economical Computer Acquisition and Improved Security at the New Orleans Computer Center (No. LCD-77-118). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duncan, E. A. (2017). Environmental controls of black abalone body temperature determine risks of thermal stress and disease (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erlanger, S. (2014, December 6). Greek Statue Travels Again, but Not to Greece. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Oster 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Altshuler and Altshuler 2004; Oster 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Altshuler and Altshuler 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Hornbaker et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime Science
AbbreviationCrime Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-7680

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