How to format your references using the Crime Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCune, J. M. (2001). The dynamics of CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV disease. Nature, 410(6831), 974–979.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmeing, T. M., & Ramakrishnan, V. (2009). What recent ribosome structures have revealed about the mechanism of translation. Nature, 461(7268), 1234–1242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dudley, A. T., Ros, M. A., & Tabin, C. J. (2002). A re-examination of proximodistal patterning during vertebrate limb development. Nature, 418(6897), 539–544.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhuang, J., Yeoh, W. K., Cui, X., Xu, X., Du, Y., Shi, Z., et al. (2014). Unabridged phase diagram for single-phased FeSe(x)Te(1-x) thin films. Scientific reports, 4, 7273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. (2014). Trayed and Packed Columns. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chakraborty, S. (Ed.). (2010). Microfluidics and Microfabrication. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Lu, P., Liu, Q., & Guo, J. (2016). Camera Calibration Implementation Based on Zhang Zhengyou Plane Method. In Y. Jia, J. Du, H. Li, & W. Zhang (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference: Volume 1 (pp. 29–40). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 17). The Uncomfortable Truth About The Tiger Trade Ban. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Measuring Performance: Challenges in Evaluating Research and Development (No. T-RCED-97-130). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capobianco, V. J. (2017). Effect of slot height variation on the aerodynamic performance of a circulation control airfoil: A CFD analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, May 28). What Price Beauty? Oh, Say $2,000 or So. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCune 2001).
This sentence cites two references (McCune 2001; Schmeing and Ramakrishnan 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmeing and Ramakrishnan 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhuang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime Science
AbbreviationCrime Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-7680

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