How to format your references using the Crime Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rakic, P. (2006). Neuroscience. No more cortical neurons for you. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5789), 928–929.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowley, J. D., & Blumenthal, T. (2008). Medicine. The cart before the horse. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5894), 1302–1304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Son, Y.-W., Cohen, M. L., & Louie, S. G. (2006). Half-metallic graphene nanoribbons. Nature, 444(7117), 347–349.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yip, C. K., Kimbrough, T. G., Felise, H. B., Vuckovic, M., Thomas, N. A., Pfuetzner, R. A., et al. (2005). Structural characterization of the molecular platform for type III secretion system assembly. Nature, 435(7042), 702–707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pavé, A. (2012). Modeling Living Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wazer, D. E., Arthur, D. W., & Vicini, F. A. (Eds.). (2009). Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: Techniques and Clinical Implementation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramsay, T., Smith, W., & Manderson, L. (2012). Brahma Kumaris: Purity and the Globalization of Faith. In L. Manderson, W. Smith, & M. Tomlinson (Eds.), Flows of Faith: Religious Reach and Community in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 51–70). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime Science.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, September 16). Indonesia First Country To Receive EU’s New Timber Licence To Combat Illegal Logging. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Truck Safety: States’ Progress in Testing and Licensing Commercial Drivers (No. RCED-90-78). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zellner, K. M. (2008). An examination of grade distribution patterns and grade inflation at a baccalaureate nursing program (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Zauzmer, B. (2017, February 21). Who Will Win Best Song? Popularity Helps. New York Times, p. AR27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rakic 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Rakic 2006; Rowley and Blumenthal 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowley and Blumenthal 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Yip et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime Science
AbbreviationCrime Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-7680

Other styles