How to format your references using the Crime Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Duflo, E. (2012). Rigorous evaluation of human behavior. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6087), 1398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M. P., & Harper, D. A. T. (2013). Earth science. Causes of the Cambrian explosion. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6152), 1355–1356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, X., Fauqué, B., & Behnia, K. (2015). SOLID-STATE PHYSICS. Scalable T2 resistivity in a small single-component Fermi surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6251), 945–948.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nguyen, T. A., Lee, J.-U., Yoon, D., & Cheong, H. (2014). Excitation energy dependent Raman signatures of ABA- and ABC-stacked few-layer graphene. Scientific reports, 4, 4630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shunmugaperumal, T. (2010). Biofilm Eradication and Prevention. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, H. K. (Ed.). (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsugawa, M., Matsunaga, A., & Fortes, J. A. B. (2014). Cloud Computing Security: What Changes with Software-Defined Networking? In S. Jajodia, K. Kant, P. Samarati, A. Singhal, V. Swarup, & C. Wang (Eds.), Secure Cloud Computing (pp. 77–93). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime Science.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, November 3). New Tiniest Snail Smashes Month-Old World Record. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Social Security: Service to the Public--Accuracy of the 800 Phone Service (No. T-HRD-90-30). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lawrence, B. H. (2015). Evaluation of a cultural practice and 2,4-D-based herbicide programs for glyphosateresistant Palmer amaranth management (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood, C. (2016, January 15). British Inmates Learning Lessons, or Not. New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Duflo 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Duflo 2012; Smith and Harper 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Harper 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Nguyen et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime Science
AbbreviationCrime Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-7680

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