How to format your references using the Crime Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crime Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Efron, B. (2013). Mathematics. Bayes’ theorem in the 21st century. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6137), 1177–1178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tholl, D., & Gershenzon, J. (2015). BIOCHEMISTRY. The flowering of a new scent pathway in rose. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6243), 28–29.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mulch, A., Graham, S. A., & Chamberlain, C. P. (2006). Hydrogen isotopes in Eocene river gravels and paleoelevation of the Sierra Nevada. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5783), 87–89.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fellay, J., Thompson, A. J., Ge, D., Gumbs, C. E., Urban, T. J., Shianna, K. V., et al. (2010). ITPA gene variants protect against anaemia in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Nature, 464(7287), 405–408.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mysak, J. (2011). Encyclopedia of Municipal Bonds. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Washio, T., Zhou, Z.-H., Huang, J. Z., Hu, X., Li, J., Xie, C., et al. (Eds.). (2007). Emerging Technologies in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: PAKDD 2007 International Workshops Nanjing, China, May 22-25, 2007 Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 4819). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan, C., Luo, J., Wang, W., & Zhu, B. (2012). Voronoi Diagram with Visual Restriction. In J. Snoeyink, P. Lu, K. Su, & L. Wang (Eds.), Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2012, Beijing, China, May 14-16, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 36–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crime Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 21). Explainer: The Models That Help Us Predict Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Analysis of Travel Activities of Certain Regulatory Agency Commissioners During 1971-75 (No. CED-76-155). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sener, A. C. (2009). Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, January 3). Feeling Low, But Standing Together. New York Times, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Efron 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Efron 2013; Tholl and Gershenzon 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tholl and Gershenzon 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Fellay et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrime Science
AbbreviationCrime Sci.
ISSN (online)2193-7680

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