How to format your references using the International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farr, N.L., 2000. Questioning placebo controls. Science 288, 1747c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wickware, P., Smaglik, P., 2001. Labs and companies seek their niches as work continues after the draft. Nature 409, 961–963.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuzuyama, T., Noel, J.P., Richard, S.B., 2005. Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products. Nature 435, 983–987.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marriner, N., Morhange, C., Kaniewski, D., Carayon, N., 2014. Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Sci. Rep. 4, 5554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chakrabarti, G., 2015. Green Investing: The Case of India, SpringerBriefs in Finance. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle, W.K., Simar, L., 2015. Theory of the Multinormal, in: Simar, L. (Ed.), Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 183–199.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. ESO Release Incredible View Of The Cat’s Paw Nebula [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Screening Partnership Program: Improved Cost Estimates Can Enhance Program Decision Making (No. GAO-16-115T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Horta, G., 2013. The potential of the Eurozone crisis to mobilize extreme right support in Spain, Portugal, and Italy (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J., 2017. E.U. Moves to Set Up Military Training. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farr, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Farr, 2000; Wickware and Smaglik, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wickware and Smaglik, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Marriner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
AbbreviationInt. J. Hyg. Environ. Health
ISSN (print)1438-4639
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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