How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: New Tigers in the Fuel Cell Tank. Science 288, 1955–1957.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atkinson, T., Leeder, M., 2008. Geology. Canyon cutting on a grand time scale. Science 319, 1343–1344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuljapurkar, S., Li, N., Boe, C., 2000. A universal pattern of mortality decline in the G7 countries. Nature 405, 789–792.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cockcroft, C.E., den Boer, B.G., Healy, J.M., Murray, J.A., 2000. Cyclin D control of growth rate in plants. Nature 405, 575–579.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armajani, J., 2011. Modern Islamist Movements. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Dunworth, K., Zhang, G. (Eds.), 2014. Critical Perspectives on Language Education: Australia and the Asia Pacific, Multilingual Education. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Trezzi, J.-P., Vlassis, N., Hiller, K., 2015. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools, in: Scatena, R. (Ed.), Advances in Cancer Biomarkers: From Biochemistry to Clinic for a Critical Revision, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 41–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Watch Live As A Giraffe Gives Birth On Camera [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools: Expenditures in Selected Schools are Comparable to Similar Public Schools, But Data Are Insufficient to Judge Adequacy of Funding and Formulas (No. GAO-03-955). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, U.T., 2014. Mental health services for foster youth: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Federal Judges Take Steps To Improve Accountability. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Atkinson and Leeder, 2008; Service, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Atkinson and Leeder, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Cockcroft et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Fluid Flow
ISSN (print)0142-727X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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