How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2013. Thrill of space exploration is a universal constant. Nature 503, 313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shang, Y., Brown, M., 2002. Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science 295, 2465–2468.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gregory, J.M., Huybrechts, P., Raper, S.C.B., 2004. Climatology: threatened loss of the Greenland ice-sheet. Nature 428, 616.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, J., Huang, S., Shao, K., Liu, Y., An, S., Kuang, Y., Guo, Y., Ma, H., Wang, X., Jiang, C., 2013. A choline derivate-modified nanoprobe for glioma diagnosis using MRI. Sci. Rep. 3, 1623.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attokaran, M., 2011. Natural Food Flavors and Colorants. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Yang, M., 2015. Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society, Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, L., Zhu, Y., Ren, X., Zhang, Y., 2014. Proximity Relative Motion Planning, in: Zhu, Y., Ren, X., Zhang, Y. (Eds.), On-Orbit Operations Optimization: Modeling and Algorithms, SpringerBriefs in Optimization. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 37–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Chimps Beat, Kill, And Eat The Former Leader Of Their Group In Brutal Attack [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Global Positioning System: A Comprehensive Assessment of Potential Options and Related Costs is Needed (No. GAO-13-729). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hemschik, T.K., 2008. Course designs, instructional strategies, and support systems in K–8 online education: A case study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Big Opening for J. Cole as Album Makes No. 1. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2013; Shang and Brown, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shang and Brown, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Fluid Flow
ISSN (print)0142-727X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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