How to format your references using the International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smil, V., 2000. Laying down the law. Nature 403, 597.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luoto, T.P., Nevalainen, L., 2013. Long-term water temperature reconstructions from mountain lakes with different catchment and morphometric features. Sci. Rep. 3, 2488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shevenell, A.E., Kennett, J.P., Lea, D.W., 2004. Middle Miocene Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic cryosphere expansion. Science 305, 1766–1770.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, F., Li, J., Wang, X., Zhang, W., Zou, B., Neher, D.A., Li, Z., 2014. Nitrogen and phosphorus addition impact soil N₂O emission in a secondary tropical forest of South China. Sci. Rep. 4, 5615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qiu, R.G., 2014. Service Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mulhall, J.P., Incrocci, L., Goldstein, I., Rosen, R. (Eds.), 2011. Cancer and Sexual Health, Current Clinical Urology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed, R., Faisal, N.H., Ali, O., Al-Anazi, N.M., Al-Mutairi, S., Mamour, S., Polychroniadis, E.K., Goosen, M.F.A., 2015. Microstructural Evaluation of Suspension Thermally Sprayed WC-Co Nanocomposite Coatings, in: Polychroniadis, E.K., Oral, A.Y., Ozer, M. (Eds.), 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress: Proceedings of InterM, October 16-19, 2014, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Low Fat Chocolate Has Potential To Electrify Production [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Further Actions Needed to Effectively Manage Risks (No. GAO-08-183T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darko-Mensah, K., 2019. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure the Online Outsourcing Efficiency of Sub-Saharan African Countries (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilford, J.N., 2016. Intertwined Circles of Faith. New York Times D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smil, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013; Smil, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luoto and Nevalainen, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
AbbreviationInt. J. Heat Fluid Flow
ISSN (print)0142-727X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Mechanical Engineering
Condensed Matter Physics

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