How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Fischer KM. Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains. Nature 2002;417:933–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Bialek W, Botstein D. Introductory science and mathematics education for 21st-Century biologists. Science 2004;303:788–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Shipley B, Vile D, Garnier E. From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity. Science 2006;314:812–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Nieto P, Pijper E, Barredo D, Laurent G, Olsen RA, Baerends E-J, et al. Reactive and nonreactive scattering of H2 from a metal surface is electronically adiabatic. Science 2006;312:86–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Mowlaee P, Kulmer J, Stahl J, Mayer F. Single Channel Phase-Aware Signal Processing in Speech Communication: Theory and Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Haddad S, Pomello L, editors. Application and Theory of Petri Nets: 33rd International Conference, PETRI NETS 2012, Hamburg, Germany, June 25-29, 2012. Proceedings. vol. 7347. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Rogers E, Galkowski K, Owens DH. Lyapunov Equations for Differential Processes. In: Galkowski K, Owens DH, editors. Control Systems Theory and Applications for Linear Repetitive Processes, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 117–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Study Provides Insight Into The Life And Death of Earth’s Earliest Animals. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/study-provides-insight-life-and-death-earth’s-earliest-animals/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Selected Cases of Commercial Drivers with Potentially Disqualifying Impairments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
To KS. Loss of Promoter Methylation is Correlated with mRNA Induction of Senescence Upregulated Gene UGT78D1. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
MacFARQUHAR N. Conspiracy Theories Mix With Somber Condolences. New York Times 2015:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2405-6308
Scope

Other styles