How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adrian RJ. Applied physics. Closing in on models of wall turbulence. Science 2010;329:155–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson AJ, Schoeman DS. Climate impact on plankton ecosystems in the Northeast Atlantic. Science 2004;305:1609–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elion EA, Qi M, Chen W. Signal transduction. Signaling specificity in yeast. Science 2005;307:687–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chandramohanadas R, Davis PH, Beiting DP, Harbut MB, Darling C, Velmourougane G, et al. Apicomplexan parasites co-opt host calpains to facilitate their escape from infected cells. Science 2009;324:794–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schoon N. Modern Islamic Banking. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Roeper T, Speas M, editors. Recursion: Complexity in Cognition. vol. 43. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamadeh A, Gonçalves J, Stan G-B. Analysis of Synchronizing Biochemical Networks via Incremental Dissipativity. In: Kulkarni VV, Stan G-B, Raman K, editors. A Systems Theoretic Approach to Systems and Synthetic Biology II: Analysis and Design of Cellular Systems, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 117–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Hale T. This Cricket Was Infested By “Mind Controlling” Worms. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aging Aircraft: FAA Needs Comprehensive Plan to Coordinate Government and Industry Actions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Currano LJ. Latching microelectromechanical shock sensor systems: Design, modeling, and experiments. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Baker AL, Southall A. Grandmother’s Killing Lays Bare Dilemma in Child Welfare Work. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)2405-6308

Other styles