How to format your references using the International Journal of Health Geographics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Health Geographics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dennell R. Palaeoanthropology: Homo sapiens in China 80,000 years ago. Nature. 2015;526:647–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ciesla FJ, Sandford SA. Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula. Science. 2012;336:452–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. MacLehose L, McKee M, Weinberg J. Responding to the challenge of communicable disease in Europe. Science. 2002;295:2047–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jess DB, Mathioudakis M, Erdélyi R, Crockett PJ, Keenan FP, Christian DJ. Alfvén waves in the lower solar atmosphere. Science. 2009;323:1582–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hochberg Z. Evo-Devo of Child Growth. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Perlman S, Holmes KV, editors. The Nidoviruses: Toward Control of SARS and other Nidovirus Diseases. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Tse V, Tse V, Collins R, Perkins J, So K, Medd J. The Female Patient. In: Chan L, Tse V, editors. Multidisciplinary Care of Urinary Incontinence: A Handbook for Health Professionals. London: Springer; 2013. p. 31–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Health Geographics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Graphene Is Missing Ingredient To Help Supercharge Batteries For Life On The Move [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Voice of America: Station Modernization Projects Need to Be Justified. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jan. Report No.: NSIAD-94-69.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kaiser CV. “Maps of the world[s] in its becoming[s]”: Seeking queer potentialities in the post-apocalyptic narrative [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Perot Stresses Homey Image, But the Image Is No Accident. New York Times. 1992 May 26;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Health Geographics
AbbreviationInt. J. Health Geogr.
ISSN (online)1476-072X
ScopeGeneral Business, Management and Accounting
General Computer Science
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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