How to format your references using the Journal of Natural Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Natural Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stokstad E (2000) MARINE CONSERVATION: Virginia Gets Crabby About Harvest Limits. Science 289:1122a
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakob M, Hilaire J (2015) Climate science: Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves. Nature 517:150–152
A journal article with 3 authors
Tupler R, Perini G, Green MR (2001) Expressing the human genome. Nature 409:832–833
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tobias JA, Bates JM, Hackett SJ, Seddon N (2008) Comment on “The latitudinal gradient in recent speciation and extinction rates of birds and mammals.” Science 319:901; author reply 901

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dallas HJ (2015) Mastering the Challenges of Leading change. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lucas P, Gámez JA, Salmerón A (2007) Advances in Probabilistic Graphical Models. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Xu J, Tsukamoto H (2016) Animal Models of Alcoholic Liver Disease. In: Chalasani N, Szabo G (eds) Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Bench to Bedside. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 103–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Natural Medicines.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Robots Teach One Another To Play Pac-Man. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) R&D Funding: The Department of Education in Perspective. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hatton H (2013) How Rural Elementary Building Principals Conceptualize the Programs in Their Schools, the Processes of Connecting Students to Programs, and Their Leadership Role in Doing So. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Youth Retreats as Women’s Draw Highlights an Age of Thirtysomethings. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Natural Medicines
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Med.
ISSN (print)1340-3443
ISSN (online)1861-0293
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles