How to format your references using the Journal of Natural Medicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Natural Medicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johns A (2001) The birth of scientific reading. Nature 409:287
A journal article with 2 authors
Hasty P, Vijg J (2002) Aging. Genomic priorities in aging. Science 296:1250–1251
A journal article with 3 authors
Colombo MG, Franzoni C, Rossi-Lamastra C (2015) ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Cash from the crowd. Science 348:1201–1202
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alam MA, Smith RK, Weir BE, Silverman PJ (2002) Thin dielectric films: Uncorrelated breakdown of integrated circuits. Nature 420:378

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arboleda H, Royer J-C (2012) Model-Driven and Software Product Line Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Koskinen U (2016) Aggressive and Violent Peasant Elites in the Nordic Countries, C. 1500-1700. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Othieno H, Awange J (2016) Energy Resources in Western and Central Africa. In: Awange J (ed) Energy Resources in Africa: Distribution, Opportunities and Challenges. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 165–192

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Natural Medicines.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Glassfrogs Hatch Early When They’re Abandoned. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Charges for Launch Support Services Furnished by the Air Force to the Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Murray BA (2015) Sociocultural factors in women’s health in Swaziland. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Widdicombe B (2017) Glamour? There’s an App for That. New York Times ST4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Natural Medicines
AbbreviationJ. Nat. Med.
ISSN (print)1340-3443
ISSN (online)1861-0293
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Organic Chemistry
General Medicine
Complementary and alternative medicine
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles