How to format your references using the International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuchs, E. (2007). Scratching the surface of skin development. Nature, 445(7130), 834–842.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baxter, I., & Dilkes, B. P. (2012). Elemental profiles reflect plant adaptations to the environment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1661–1663.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gao, F., Ding, Z., & Meng, S. (2013). Three-dimensional metal-intercalated covalent organic frameworks for near-ambient energy storage. Scientific reports, 3, 1882.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ellwood, B. B., Benoist, S. L., El Hassani, A., Wheeler, C., & Crick, R. E. (2003). Impact ejecta layer from the mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5626), 1734–1737.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elliott, C. H., & Smith, L. L. (2010). Overcoming Anxiety for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Shahid, A., Wilkinson, K., Marcu, S., & Shapiro, C. M. (Eds.). (2012). STOP, THAT and One Hundred Other Sleep Scales (1st ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vahrenkamp, N., Asfour, T., & Dillmann, R. (2010). Efficient Motion and Grasp Planning for Humanoid Robots. In K. Harada, E. Yoshida, & K. Yokoi (Eds.), Motion Planning for Humanoid Robots (pp. 129–160). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, August 1). Gullies On Mars Are Not Formed By Liquid Water – But Other Features Are. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). DOD Business Systems Modernization: Continued Investment in Key Accounting Systems Needs to be Justified (No. GAO-03-465). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, A. F. (2014). Anxiety in the process of individuation. An in-depth psychological study (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(mrs M S ) Isabella. (1960, December 18). Rosenbach and Books. New York Times, p. The New York Times Book ReviewBR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuchs 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baxter and Dilkes 2012; Fuchs 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baxter and Dilkes 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ellwood et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
ISSN (print)1389-6563
ISSN (online)1573-6962

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