How to format your references using the International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooks, R. (2000). Negative genetic correlation between male sexual attractiveness and survival. Nature, 406(6791), 67–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bottos, A., & Hynes, N. E. (2014). Cancer: Staying together on the road to metastasis. Nature, 514(7522), 309–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, C., Wei, S., & Hendrey, G. (2014). Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration. Scientific reports, 4, 5472.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Arcizet, O., Cohadon, P.-F., Briant, T., Pinard, M., & Heidmann, A. (2006). Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror. Nature, 444(7115), 71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. (2011). The Controller’s Function. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grant, S. F. A. (Ed.). (2014). The Genetics of Obesity. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ermentrout, G. B., & Terman, D. H. (2010). Bursting Oscillations. In D. H. Terman (Ed.), Mathematical Foundations of Neuroscience (pp. 103–127). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, June 17). Beetle Inspired Material Draws Water From Arid Air. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Highway Safety Research and Development--Better Management Can Make It More Useful (No. CED-80-87). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Addington, L. M. (2012). Students’ Preferences for Information Sources during the Undergraduate College Search Process: The Influence of Technology (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2016, June 23). A Superhero Who Defies Gravity, Despite a Heavy Burden. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooks 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bottos and Hynes 2014; Brooks 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bottos and Hynes 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Arcizet et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
ISSN (print)1389-6563
ISSN (online)1573-6962

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