How to format your references using the International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Slonczewski, J. (2000). Tuberculosis bacteria join UN. Nature, 405(6790), 1001.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jackson, S. T., & Hobbs, R. J. (2009). Ecological restoration in the light of ecological history. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5940), 567–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jarillo-Herrero, P., van Dam, J. A., & Kouwenhoven, L. P. (2006). Quantum supercurrent transistors in carbon nanotubes. Nature, 439(7079), 953–956.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Verma, R., Aravind, L., Oania, R., McDonald, W. H., Yates, J. R., 3rd, Koonin, E. V., & Deshaies, R. J. (2002). Role of Rpn11 metalloprotease in deubiquitination and degradation by the 26S proteasome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5593), 611–615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shaw, M. T. (2011). Introduction to Polymer Rheology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leung, V. C. M., & Chen, M. (Eds.). (2014). Cloud Computing: 4th International Conference, CloudComp 2013, Wuhan, China, October 17-19, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 133). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jääskeläinen, A., Katara, M., Kervinen, A., Heiskanen, H., Maunumaa, M., & Pääkkönen, T. (2008). Model-Based Testing Service on the Web. In K. Suzuki, T. Higashino, A. Ulrich, & T. Hasegawa (Eds.), Testing of Software and Communicating Systems: 20th IFIP TC 6/WG 6.1 International Conference, TestCom 2008 8th International Workshop, FATES 2008 Tokyo, Japan, June 10-13, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 38–53). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 20). Biohybrid Robo Sea Slug Developed That Could Help Search For Black Boxes. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1979). Federal Research and Development Budget (No. 094379). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoang, T. T. (2017). Acoustic and Image Vehicle Classification System (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, May 19). Table Tennis Beside a Bank, and Other Contests Intended to ‘Reclaim’ Midtown. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Slonczewski 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Jackson and Hobbs 2009; Slonczewski 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jackson and Hobbs 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Verma et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
ISSN (print)1389-6563
ISSN (online)1573-6962

Other styles