How to format your references using the International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Poitrasson, F. (2009). Geochemistry. Probes of the ancient and the inaccessible. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 882–883.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mochida, S., & Hunt, T. (2007). Calcineurin is required to release Xenopus egg extracts from meiotic M phase. Nature, 449(7160), 336–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peltier, W. R., Liu, Y., & Crowley, J. W. (2007). Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization. Nature, 450(7171), 813–818.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thewissen, J. G., Williams, E. M., Roe, L. J., & Hussain, S. T. (2001). Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature, 413(6853), 277–281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodman, A. H. (2012). Rehabilitating and Resettling Offenders in the Community. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Canepari, M., Zecevic, D., & Bernus, O. (Eds.). (2015). Membrane Potential Imaging in the Nervous System and Heart (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 859). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheppard, B., & Slavin, D. (2009). The Use of War Game Simulations for Business Strategies. In I. Linkov, E. Ferguson, & V. S. Magar (Eds.), Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making: Application to Emerging Stressors (pp. 77–90). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 9). Why Do We Kiss? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Federal Fleets: Overall Increase in Number of Vehicles Masks That Some Agencies Decreased Their Fleets (No. GAO-12-780). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winer, E. J. (2010). Elementary School Consolidation and Reconfiguration: An Autoethnographic Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Perlroth, N., Scott, M., & Frenkel, S. (2017, June 27). A Cyberattack Hits Ukraine, Then Spreads. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Poitrasson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Mochida and Hunt 2007; Poitrasson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mochida and Hunt 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Thewissen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics
ISSN (print)1389-6563
ISSN (online)1573-6962

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