How to format your references using the International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Linden J (2006) Cell biology. Purinergic chemotaxis. Science 314:1689–1690
A journal article with 2 authors
Gao YQ, Marcus RA (2001) Strange and unconventional isotope effects in ozone formation. Science 293:259–263
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener TW, Losos JB, Spiller DA (2005) Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns. Science 310:1807–1809
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kovalenko A, Chable-Bessia C, Cantarella G, et al (2003) The tumour suppressor CYLD negatively regulates NF-kappaB signalling by deubiquitination. Nature 424:801–805

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steele D (2011) From Therapist to Coach. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mishra SK (2011) Topics in Nonconvex Optimization: Theory and Applications. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Ata A (2009) Novel Bioactive Natural Products from Marine and Terrestrial Sources. In: Şener B (ed) Innovations in Chemical Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 51–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Supercharged Vancomycin Kills Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Transportation Infrastructure: Limited Improvement in Bridge Conditions over the Past Decade, but Financial Challenges Remain. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez S (2012) Support group for caregivers coping with their child diagnosed with autism: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Justices Take Up Battle Over Exxon Valdez Damages. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering
ISSN (print)2199-9260
ISSN (online)2199-9279

Other styles