How to format your references using the International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Toms DJ (2010) Quantum gravitational contributions to quantum electrodynamics. Nature 468:56–59
A journal article with 2 authors
Zeh JA, Zeh DW (2006) Outbred embryos rescue inbred half-siblings in mixed-paternity broods of live-bearing females. Nature 439:201–203
A journal article with 3 authors
Lenton TM, Schellnhuber HJ, Szathmáry E (2004) Climbing the co-evolution ladder. Nature 431:913
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leonard JA, Wayne RK, Wheeler J, et al (2002) Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs. Science 298:1613–1616

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lehr J, Ron P (2017) Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lodwick WA, Kacprzyk J (2010) Fuzzy Optimization: Recent Advances and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dantas YG, Lemos MOO, Fonseca IE, Nigam V (2016) Formal Specification and Verification of a Selective Defense for TDoS Attacks. In: Lucanu D (ed) Rewriting Logic and Its Applications: 11th International Workshop, WRLA 2016, Held as a Satellite Event of ETAPS, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, April 2-3, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 82–97

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Rampaging Elephant Smashes House, Then Rescues Crying Baby. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) The Management and Operation of FCC’s Public Reference Rooms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brightbill RG (2012) Bradenton, FL: A Patchwork City. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M, Rashbaum WK (2017) Accused of Spying, a New York City Correction Official Is Removed. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering
ISSN (print)2199-9260
ISSN (online)2199-9279

Other styles