How to format your references using the International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perrin MD (2015) Astrophysics: Surprisingly fast motions in a dust disk. Nature 526:204–205
A journal article with 2 authors
Tegmark M, Bostrom N (2005) Astrophysics: is a doomsday catastrophe likely? Nature 438:754
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson G, Aagaard B, Hudnut K (2003) Fault interactions and large complex earthquakes in the Los Angeles area. Science 302:1946–1949
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fujishiro T, Kawasaki H, Aihara M, et al (2014) Establishment of an experimental ferret ocular hypertension model for the analysis of central visual pathway damage. Sci Rep 4:6501

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Courant R, McShane EJ (1988) Differential and Integral Calculus. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Abraham A (2012) Computational Social Networks: Security and Privacy. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Mondal PP, Diaspro A (2014) Molecular Physics of Fluorescent Markers. In: Diaspro A (ed) Fundamentals of Fluorescence Microscopy: Exploring Life with Light. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 95–107

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Humans Were Eating Snails 30,000 Years Ago. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Federal Research Grants: Opportunities Remain for Agencies to Streamline Administrative Requirements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fletcher B (2017) Tropes of Dis/Ableism as Flexible Stigma: Examining Brenda Connors’ 2008 Report as an Instance of Dis/Ableist Polemical Rhetoric. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J (2016) Counting Green: How to Measure Your Carbon Tire Print. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Engineering
ISSN (print)2199-9260
ISSN (online)2199-9279

Other styles