How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture (Int J Fract). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirshner RP (2014) Astrophysics: Supernova seen through γ-ray eyes. Nature 512:375–376
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson DR, Hare JF (2004) Animal communication: ground squirrel uses ultrasonic alarms. Nature 430:523
A journal article with 3 authors
Maiorano D, Moreau J, Méchali M (2000) XCDT1 is required for the assembly of pre-replicative complexes in Xenopus laevis. Nature 404:622–625
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bauch T, Lindström T, Tafuri F, et al (2006) Quantum dynamics of a d-wave Josephson junction. Science 311:57–60

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon J (2009) Training Camp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rau PLP (ed) (2014) Cross-Cultural Design: 6th International Conference, CCD 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Fujiwara T (2013) Cesium Uptake in Rice: Possible Transporter, Distribution, and Variation. In: Nakanishi TM, Tanoi K (eds) Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp 29–35

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Ocean Is Losing Its Breath – And Climate Change Is Making It Worse. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Aviation Safety: FAA Has An Opportunity to Enhance Safety and Improve Oversight of Initial Pilot Training. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler BK (2013) Error Floors of LDPC Codes and Related Topics. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) Tallying the Financial Aftermath: Japan Government Likely To Bear Big Monetary Loss. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sovacool 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Kargel 2004; Franson 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Hare 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Cebrian et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles