How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2003) Working for peanuts. Nature 425:323
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans JA, Reimer J (2009) Open access and global participation in science. Science 323:1025
A journal article with 3 authors
Satoh N, Nakashima T, Yamamoto K (2013) Metastability of anatase: size dependent and irreversible anatase-rutile phase transition in atomic-level precise titania. Sci Rep 3:1959
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A, Bilodeau G, Weaver AJ (2001) Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period. Nature 410:1073–1077

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gavin H, Porter T (2014) Female Aggression. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Larheim TA (2006) Maxillofacial Imaging. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Beyleveld D, Pattinson SD (2005) Individual Rights, Social Justice, and the Allocation of Advances in Biotechnology. In: Boylan M (ed) Public Health Policy and Ethics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) GM Crops that Produce Fish Oil Successfully Grown in the Field. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) Opportunities and Constraints for Expanding Use of Research Facilities at the National Bureau of Standards. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kyereboah R (2015) Criteria For Appointing Board Members to Corporate Boards in Ghana. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) A Family Revolving Around a Disability. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Evans and Reimer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Reimer 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Hillaire-Marcel et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles