How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilmore G (2008) Astronomy. How cold is cold dark matter? Science 322:1476–1477
A journal article with 2 authors
Millum J, Emanuel EJ (2007) Ethics. The ethics of international research with abandoned children. Science 318:1874–1875
A journal article with 3 authors
Clevers H, Loh KM, Nusse R (2014) Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration: Wnt signaling and stem cell control. Science 346:1248012
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Janecka JE, Miller W, Pringle TH, et al (2007) Molecular and genomic data identify the closest living relative of primates. Science 318:792–794

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner DJ (2010) The ETF Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lagerlund H (ed) (2011) Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Edelglass W (2005) Levinas’s Language. In: Tymieniecka A-T (ed) The Enigma of Good and Evil; The Moral Sentiment in Literature. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 47–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) One In Five Tattoo Inks In Australia Contain Carcinogenic Chemicals. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/one-in-five-tattoo-inks-in-australia-contain-carcinogenic-chemicals/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Domec BS (2017) Development, Characterization, and Resultant Properties of a Carbon, Boron, and Chromium Ternary Diffusion System. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2004) World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Settle Last Border Dispute. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilmore 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Millum and Emanuel 2007; Gilmore 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Millum and Emanuel 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Janecka et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles