How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sargent W (2004) Obituary: J. Beverley Oke (1928-2004). Nature 428:483
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen VK, Egholm DL (2013) Glaciations in response to climate variations preconditioned by evolving topography. Nature 493:206–210
A journal article with 3 authors
Petta JR, Lu H, Gossard AC (2010) A coherent beam splitter for electronic spin states. Science 327:669–672
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ackert RP Jr, Becker RA, Singer BS, et al (2008) Patagonian glacier response during the late glacial-Holocene transition. Science 321:392–395

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith P (2016) Structural Design of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pébay A (ed) (2014) Regenerative Biology of the Eye. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Joardder MUH, Karim A, Kumar C, Brown RJ (2016) Effect of Porosity on Drying Kinetics and Food Properties. In: Karim A, Kumar C, Brown RJ (eds) Porosity: Establishing the Relationship between Drying Parameters and Dried Food Quality. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 47–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Our Solar System Was Shocked And Spun To Form Planets. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) K-12 Education: School-Based Physical Education and Sports Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson P (2015) A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Ball That Seems Innocuous Closes Door on a Mets Rally. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sargent 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sargent 2004; Pedersen and Egholm 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Egholm 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ackert et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles