How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dowdeswell JA (2006) Atmospheric science. The Greenland Ice Sheet and global sea-level rise. Science 311:963–964
A journal article with 2 authors
DeLong EF, Karl DM (2005) Genomic perspectives in microbial oceanography. Nature 437:336–342
A journal article with 3 authors
Rood RT, Bania TM, Balser DS (2002) Cosmology. The saga of 3He. Science 295:804–805
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jimenez-Useche I, Ke J, Tian Y, et al (2013) DNA methylation regulated nucleosome dynamics. Sci Rep 3:2121

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossner W, Graubner C-A (2012) Spannbetonbauwerke. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Beziau J-Y (ed) (2007) Logica Universalis: Towards a General Theory of Logic, Second Edition. Birkhäuser, Basel
A chapter in an edited book
Powell AB, Borge IC, Fioriti GI, et al (2009) Challenging Tasks and Mathematics Learning. In: Taylor PJ, Barbeau EJ (eds) Challenging Mathematics In and Beyond the Classroom: The 16th ICMI Study. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 133–170

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) The Meaning of “Peer Review” Explained So That Even Breitbart Writers Can Understand. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) Guaranteed Student Loans: Guidelines for Reducing Guaranty Agency Reserves. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winkelhake B (2015) Verbal argumentativeness: A study of retail store managers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wines M, Bidgood J (2014) Waters Warm, and Cod Catch Ebbs in Maine. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dowdeswell 2006).
This sentence cites two references (DeLong and Karl 2005; Dowdeswell 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeLong and Karl 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Jimenez-Useche et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles