How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman KC (2006) Astronomy. Sorting out the colors of globular clusters. Science 311:1105–1106
A journal article with 2 authors
Körner C, Basler D (2010) Plant science. Phenology under global warming. Science 327:1461–1462
A journal article with 3 authors
Kiesecker JM, Blaustein AR, Belden LK (2001) Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature 410:681–684
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Duan X, Huang Y, Cui Y, et al (2001) Indium phosphide nanowires as building blocks for nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Nature 409:66–69

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibrahim D (2006) Microcontroller Based Applied Digital Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pott A, Bruckmann T (eds) (2015) Cable-Driven Parallel Robots: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bertolissi C, Ranise S (2013) Verification of Composed Array-Based Systems with Applications to Security-Aware Workflows. In: Fontaine P, Ringeissen C, Schmidt RA (eds) Frontiers of Combining Systems: 9th International Symposium, FroCoS 2013, Nancy, France, September 18-20, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 40–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Photographer Captures Bee Peeing Mid-Flight. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) Information Systems: Agencies Overlook Security Controls During Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green RE (2010) From Hart to Hammerstein: The music of Richard Rodgers and his evolution toward the integrated musical. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2008) Justices Indicate They May Uphold Voter ID Rules. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Freeman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Freeman 2006; Körner and Basler 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Körner and Basler 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Duan et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles