How to format your references using the International Journal of Fracture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Fracture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batey RT (2014) Structural biology: Lariat lessons. Nature 514:173–174
A journal article with 2 authors
Cichon J, Gan W-B (2015) Branch-specific dendritic Ca(2+) spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity. Nature 520:180–185
A journal article with 3 authors
Tyler RH, Maus S, Lühr H (2003) Satellite observations of magnetic fields due to ocean tidal flow. Science 299:239–241
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jiang ZH, Yun S, Lin L, et al (2013) Tailoring dispersion for broadband low-loss optical metamaterials using deep-subwavelength Inclusions. Sci Rep 3:1571

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson GP (2011) Managing to the New Regulatory Reality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Jain SM, Gupta PK (eds) (2005) Protocol for Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Ledingham KWD (2007) A vision for laser induced particle acceleration and applications. In: Błaszczak Z, Markov B, Marinova K (eds) LASER 2006: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Application of Lasers in Atomic Nuclei Research “Nuclear Ground and Isometric State Properties” (LASER 2006) held in Poznán, Poland, 29 May–1 June 2006. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Fracture.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) How Some Parasites Can End Up In Your Eye And Turn You Blind. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duan C (2004) Dynamic Analysis of Dry Friction Path in a Torsional System. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) Trudging to Suffrage, On a Swiss Schedule. New York Times C7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batey 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Batey 2014; Cichon and Gan 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cichon and Gan 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Fracture
AbbreviationInt. J. Fract.
ISSN (print)0376-9429
ISSN (online)1573-2673
ScopeComputational Mechanics
Mechanics of Materials
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles