How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Geballe TH. 2001. Superconductivity. Super boron. Science. 293(5528):223–224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver BAA, Cleveland DW. 2007. Comment on “A centrosome-independent role for gamma-TuRC proteins in the spindle assembly checkpoint.” Science. 316(5827):982; author reply 982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gray-Schopfer V, Wellbrock C, Marais R. 2007. Melanoma biology and new targeted therapy. Nature. 445(7130):851–857.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Omatsu-Kanbe M, Nishino Y, Nozuchi N, Sugihara H, Matsuura H. 2014. Prion protein- and cardiac troponin T-marked interstitial cells from the adult myocardium spontaneously develop into beating cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep. 4:7301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perl J, DeMark TR. 2010. DeMark Indicators. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sericola B, Telek M, Horváth G, editors. 2014. Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 21st International Conference, ASMTA 2014, Budapest, Hungary, June 30 – July 2, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nagnibeda E, Kustova E. 2009. Multi-Temperature Models in Transport and Relaxation Theory. In: Kustova E, editor. Non-Equilibrium Reacting Gas Flows: Kinetic Theory of Transport and Relaxation Processes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 55–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. This Is What Marijuana Looks Like Under A Microscope. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. FAA Work Forces: Important Decisions Affecting Staff Use and Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sprague T. 2012. Cultural perspectives among children of Guatemalan Maya immigrants in Lake Worth, Florida [Doctoral dissertation]. Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2008. Plane Crash in Central Asia Kills 68. New York Times.:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Geballe 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Geballe 2001; Weaver & Cleveland 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weaver & Cleveland 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Omatsu-Kanbe et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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