How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seehausen O. 2015. Evolution: Beauty varies with the light. Nature. 521:34–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Esmaeili-Rad MR, Salahuddin S. 2013. High performance molybdenum disulfide amorphous silicon heterojunction photodetector. Sci Rep. 3:2345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Riemer J, Bulleid N, Herrmann JM. 2009. Disulfide formation in the ER and mitochondria: two solutions to a common process. Science. 324:1284–1287.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Smith GF, Steenkamp Y, Klopper RR, Siebert SJ, Arnold TH. 2003. The price of collecting life. Nature. 422:375–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alberty RA. 2011. Enzyme Kinetics: Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brueckner SA, Marzo Serugendo GD, Karageorgos A, Nagpal R, editors. 2005. Engineering Self-Organising Systems: Methodologies and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Novick AC. 2006. Renal Malignancy. In: Novick AC, Stephen Jones J, Gill IS, Klein EA, Rackley R, Ross JH, editors. Operative Urology at the Cleveland Clinic. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; p. 31–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2017. How Old Is Our Moon? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. Information Technology: Federal Agencies Face Challenges in Implementing Initiatives to Improve Public Health Infrastructure. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mikhailik Y. 2013. Longing Limned [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. 2012. Conflict Is Issue In a Pension Suit. New York Times.:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seehausen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Esmaeili-Rad & Salahuddin 2013; Seehausen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Esmaeili-Rad & Salahuddin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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