How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibson JM. 2009. Materials science. Viewing the seeds of crystallization. Science. 326(5955):942–943.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berndt JD, Moon RT. 2013. Cell biology. Making a point with Wnt signals. Science. 339(6126):1388–1389.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deán-Ben XL, Bay E, Razansky D. 2014. Functional optoacoustic imaging of moving objects using microsecond-delay acquisition of multispectral three-dimensional tomographic data. Sci Rep. 4:5878.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Song T-RA, Helmberger DV, Brudzinski MR, Clayton RW, Davis P, Pérez-Campos X, Singh SK. 2009. Subducting slab ultra-slow velocity layer coincident with silent earthquakes in southern Mexico. Science. 324(5926):502–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hornberger G, Wiberg P. 2005. Numerical Methods in the Hydrological Sciences. Washington D. C.: American Geophysical Union.
An edited book
Xie Y, editor. 2014. Emerging Memory Technologies: Design, Architecture, and Applications. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickering S, McCulloch J, Wright-Neville D. 2008. The Police. In: McCulloch J, Wright-Neville D, editors. Counter-Terrorism Policing: Community, Cohesion and Security. New York, NY: Springer; p. 71–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Evans K. 2017. That “Guilty” Look That Your Dog Is Giving You Isn’t Actually Guilt. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Adult Basic Education Program: Progress in Reducing Illiteracy and Improvements Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nasiriamini S. 2010. The need for adaptive network application architectures [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Park LS. 2015. Look on the Bright Side. New York Times.:BR18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gibson 2009; Berndt and Moon 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berndt and Moon 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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