How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordhaus WD. 2001. Climate change. Global warming economics. Science. 294(5545):1283–1284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cummings CA, Relman DA. 2002. Genomics and microbiology. Microbial forensics--"cross-examining pathogens". Science. 296(5575):1976–1979.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharma B, Mandani S, Sarma TK. 2013. Biogenic growth of alloys and core-shell nanostructures using urease as a nanoreactor at ambient conditions. Sci Rep. 3:2601.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Lim Y-W, Steinhoff M, Girosi F, Holtzman D, Campbell H, Boer R, Black R, Mulholland K. 2006. Reducing the global burden of acute lower respiratory infections in children: the contribution of new diagnostics. Nature. 444 Suppl 1:9–18.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertolini L, Elsener B, Pedeferri P, Polder RB. 2003. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Brucker P. 2006. Complex Scheduling. Knust S, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cervantes L, Castillo O. 2016. Simulation Results. In: Castillo O, editor. Hierarchical Type-2 Fuzzy Aggregation of Fuzzy Controllers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 21–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2017. New Drug Appears To Eliminate Type 2 Diabetes For First Time. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Time Is Running Out for Federal Agencies to Prepare for the New Millennium. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khalili A. 2017. Spectrally formulated user-defined element in Abaqus for wave motion analysis and health monitoring of composite structures [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. 2016. Pandora Seeks a Way Out of the Internet Radio Doldrums. Cue Questlove. New York Times.:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nordhaus 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nordhaus 2001; Cummings and Relman 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cummings and Relman 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lim et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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