How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. 2003. When the chips are down. Nature. 424(6948):585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toth LJ, Assad JA. 2002. Dynamic coding of behaviourally relevant stimuli in parietal cortex. Nature. 415(6868):165–168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daubin V, Moran NA, Ochman H. 2003. Phylogenetics and the cohesion of bacterial genomes. Science. 301(5634):829–832.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Wang B, Matsuoka S, Ballif BA, Zhang D, Smogorzewska A, Gygi SP, Elledge SJ. 2007. Abraxas and RAP80 form a BRCA1 protein complex required for the DNA damage response. Science. 316(5828):1194–1198.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarman KH. 2015. Beyond Basic Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vene V, Uustalu T, editors. 2005. Advanced Functional Programming: 5th International School, AFP 2004, Tartu, Estonia, August 14 – 21, 2004, Revised Lectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Perälä PHJ, Paananen JP, Mukhopadhyay M, Laulajainen J-P. 2011. A Novel Testbed for P2P Networks. In: Magedanz T, Gavras A, Thanh NH, Chase JS, editors. Testbeds and Research Infrastructures Development of Networks and Communities: 6th International ICST Conference, TridentCom 2010, Berlin, Germany, May 18-20, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; p. 69–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Robots To The Rescue Of The Great Barrier Reef. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Financial Literacy: The Federal Government’s Role in Empowering Americans to Make Sound Financial Choices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byeon G. 2014. More than words: A comparative study of Liszt’s Liebesträume and the songs from which they were transcribed [Doctoral dissertation]. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010. Cushing Made His Choice; Voters Have an Easy One. New York Times.:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Toth and Assad 2002; Gershon 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Toth and Assad 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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