How to format your references using the Forests, Trees and Livelihoods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries C. 2014. Drug development: a complicated path. Nature. 515(7526):S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bauer J, Prenzel M. 2012. Science education. European teacher training reforms. Science. 336(6089):1642–1643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bard E, Rostek F, Ménot-Combes G. 2004. Paleoclimate. A better radiocarbon clock. Science. 303(5655):178–179.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Hall LJ, Coluci VR, Galvão DS, Kozlov ME, Zhang M, Dantas SO, Baughman RH. 2008. Sign Change of Poisson’s Ratio for Carbon Nanotube Sheets. Science. 320(5875):504–507.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smaini L. 2012. RF Analog Impairments Modeling for Communication Systems Simulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Muñoz-Rojas PA, editor. 2013. Optimization of Structures and Components. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Holovaty A, Kaplan-Moss J. 2008. Interacting with a Database: Models. In: Kaplan-Moss J, editor. The Definitive Guide to Django: Web Development Done Right. Berkeley, CA: Apress; p. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests, Trees and Livelihoods.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2016. Natural Disasters Spark Civil Wars. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2010. Public Transportation: Use of Contractors is Generally Enhancing Transit Project Oversight, and FTA is Taking Actions to Address Some Stakeholder Concerns. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hao S. 2013. An Introduction to Discrete Minimal Surfaces via the Enneper Surface [Doctoral dissertation]. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 2016. Chatting With Bowie. New York Times.:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Humphries 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bauer and Prenzel 2012; Humphries 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bauer and Prenzel 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Hall et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleForests, Trees and Livelihoods
AbbreviationFor. Trees Livelihoods
ISSN (print)1472-8028
ISSN (online)2164-3075

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