How to format your references using the International Journal of Forecasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Forecasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fitch, T. (2010). Journal club. A cognitive biologist foresees breakthroughs in understanding vocal learning. Nature, 466(7303), 163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wahl, E. R., & Morrill, C. (2010). Climate change. Toward understanding and predicting monsoon patterns. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5977), 437–438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foreman, B. Z., Heller, P. L., & Clementz, M. T. (2012). Fluvial response to abrupt global warming at the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary. Nature, 491(7422), 92–95.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Pal, C., Maciá, M. D., Oliver, A., Schachar, I., & Buckling, A. (2007). Coevolution with viruses drives the evolution of bacterial mutation rates. Nature, 450(7172), 1079–1081.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sundar, V. (2015). Ocean Wave Mechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Colom, J.-M., & Desel, J. (Eds.). (2013). Application and Theory of Petri Nets and Concurrency: 34th International Conference, PETRI NETS 2013, Milan, Italy, June 24-28, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7927). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fischer, M., Meyer, S., Oswald, M., Claudel, P., & Karst, F. (2013). Metabolic Engineering of Monoterpenoid Production in Yeast. In T. J. Bach & M. Rohmer (Eds.), Isoprenoid Synthesis in Plants and Microorganisms: New Concepts and Experimental Approaches (pp. 65–71). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Forecasting.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, May 4). How Realistic Is It To Ask Someone To “Cry A River”? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Landsat’s Role in an Earth Resources Information System (PSAD-77-58). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomez, D. A. (2010). System of systems engineering: Prescribing the technical development effort to engineer a constituent system [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, June 8). Bullpen Surrenders Wheeler’s Lead, but the Mets Prevail. New York Times, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fitch, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fitch, 2010; Wahl & Morrill, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wahl & Morrill, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Foreman et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Pal et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Forecasting
AbbreviationInt. J. Forecast.
ISSN (print)0169-2070
ScopeBusiness and International Management

Other styles