How to format your references using the International Journal of Forecasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Forecasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knott, G. (2015). Neurodegeneration: Cold shock protects the brain. Nature, 518(7538), 177–178.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cascales, E., & Christie, P. J. (2004). Definition of a bacterial type IV secretion pathway for a DNA substrate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5674), 1170–1173.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pevzner, P. A., Kim, S., & Ng, J. (2008). Comment on “Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1040; author reply 1040.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bessell, P. R., Searle, K. R., Auty, H. K., Handel, I. G., Purse, B. V., & Bronsvoort, B. M. D. (2013). Epidemic potential of an emerging vector borne disease in a marginal environment: Schmallenberg in Scotland. Scientific Reports, 3, 1178.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burwick, F. (2015). Romanticism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Qi, E., Su, Q., Shen, J., Wu, F., & Dou, R. (Eds.). (2015). Proceedings of the 5th International Asia Conference on Industrial Engineering and Management Innovation (IEMI2014) (Vol. 1). Atlantis Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Nyporko, A. Y. (2014). DNA Dependent DNA Polymerases as Targets for Low-Weight Molecular Inhibitors: State of Art and Prospects of Rational Design. In L. Gorb, V. Kuz’min, & E. Muratov (Eds.), Application of Computational Techniques in Pharmacy and Medicine (pp. 95–135). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Forecasting.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 9). Tiny Monkey Causes Nationwide Blackout In Kenya. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). 1998 NASA Budget: Review of Selected Activities (NSIAD-97-252R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Neilson, D. H. (2009). Structured interactions and collective outcomes essays on production and finance [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Buckley, C. (2017, June 27). Tycoon’s Claims Reverberate in China Despite Censorship and Thin Evidence. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knott, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cascales & Christie, 2004; Knott, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cascales & Christie, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Pevzner et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bessell et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Forecasting
AbbreviationInt. J. Forecast.
ISSN (print)0169-2070
ScopeBusiness and International Management

Other styles