How to format your references using the International Journal of Forecasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Forecasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaston, K. J. (2012). Ecology: the importance of being rare. Nature, 487(7405), 46–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser, M. L., & Gehling, J. G. (2008). Synchronous aggregate growth in an abundant new Ediacaran tubular organism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1660–1662.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dehaene-Lambertz, G., Dehaene, S., & Hertz-Pannier, L. (2002). Functional neuroimaging of speech perception in infants. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 2013–2015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Geldner, N., Friml, J., Stierhof, Y. D., Jürgens, G., & Palme, K. (2001). Auxin transport inhibitors block PIN1 cycling and vesicle trafficking. Nature, 413(6854), 425–428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eidhammer, I., Barsnes, H., Eide, G. E., & Martens, L. (2013). Computational and Statistical Methods for Protein Quantification by Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Masferrer, A. (Ed.). (2012). Post 9/11 and the State of Permanent Legal Emergency: Security and Human Rights in Countering Terrorism (Vol. 14). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kulikowski, J. L. (2012). Human Activity Supporting by Deontological Knowledgebases. In Z. S. Hippe, J. L. Kulikowski, & T. Mroczek (Eds.), Human – Computer Systems Interaction: Backgrounds and Applications 2: Part 1 (pp. 67–83). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Forecasting.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 8). Can You Solve Einstein’s Riddle? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Space Station: Russian Compliance With Safety Requirements (T-NSIAD-00-128). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, K. L. (2017). Putting together the pieces of a social cognition deficit: A retrospective case study [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2011, November 24). 10 Young Upstarts Strut Their Stuff in Miami. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaston, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Droser & Gehling, 2008; Gaston, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Droser & Gehling, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Dehaene-Lambertz et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Geldner et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Forecasting
AbbreviationInt. J. Forecast.
ISSN (print)0169-2070
ScopeBusiness and International Management

Other styles