How to format your references using the International Journal of Forecasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Forecasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heller, E. (2000). Electrons in the looking glass. Nature, 403(6769), 489, 491.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pennycook, S. J., & Kalinin, S. V. (2014). Microscopy: Hasten high resolution. Nature, 515(7528), 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield, C. W., Cziko, A.-M., & Robinson, G. E. (2003). Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5643), 296–299.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hilder, T. A., Ridone, P., Nakayama, Y., Martinac, B., & Chung, S.-H. (2014). Binding of fullerenes and nanotubes to MscL. Scientific Reports, 4, 5609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R. G. (2012). Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Groettrup, M. (Ed.). (2010). Conjugation and Deconjugation of Ubiquitin Family Modifiers: Subcellular Biochemistry (Vol. 54). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shear, J. (2014). Converging on the Self: Western Philosophy, Eastern Meditation and Scientific Research. In S. Menon, A. Sinha, & B. V. Sreekantan (Eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Consciousness and the Self (pp. 41–50). Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Forecasting.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 12). This is What 200 Calories Worth Of Different Foods Looks Like. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Important Progress Made, But Much Work Remains to Avoid Disruption of Critical Services (T-AIMD-99-267). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chima-Okereke, O. (2010). The distinct VPS35 mutant, env1, exhibits unique protein mislocalization and processing phenotype [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Green, L. V. (2006, December 10). Beds of State. New York Times, LI15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heller, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Heller, 2000; Pennycook & Kalinin, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pennycook & Kalinin, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Whitfield et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hilder et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Forecasting
AbbreviationInt. J. Forecast.
ISSN (print)0169-2070
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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