How to format your references using the International Journal of Forecasting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Forecasting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, V. (2005). High-energy career lines. Nature, 434(7035), 936–937.
A journal article with 2 authors
Whetten, R. L., & Price, R. C. (2007). Chemistry. Nano-golden order. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849), 407–408.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cochran, E. S., Vidale, J. E., & Tanaka, S. (2004). Earth tides can trigger shallow thrust fault earthquakes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5699), 1164–1166.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Skrott, Z., Mistrik, M., Andersen, K. K., Friis, S., Majera, D., Gursky, J., … Bartek, J. (2017). Alcohol-abuse drug disulfiram targets cancer via p97 segregase adaptor NPL4. Nature, 552(7684), 194–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, G., & Broniatowski, M. (2017). Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chae, J. (Ed.). (2015). Initial Results from the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Brown, K., Laue, M., Tafur, J., Mahmood, M. N., Scherrer, P., & Keast, R. (2014). An Integrated Approach to Strategic Asset Management. In A. V. Gheorghe, M. Masera, & P. F. Katina (Eds.), Infranomics: Sustainability, Engineering Design and Governance (pp. 57–74). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Forecasting.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 12). Rare Drone Footage Captures Whales Hunting Down And Grabbing A Shark. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Railroad Retirement Board: Total and Permanent Disability Program at Risk of Improper Payments (No. GAO-14-418). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper, T. (2010). Going public, staying private, and everything in between (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, June 20). ‘Bachelor in Paradise’ To Resume Taping. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Christian, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Manolopoulos, 2002; Montgomery, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Whetten & Price, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Cochran, Vidale, & Tanaka, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kim et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Forecasting
AbbreviationInt. J. Forecast.
ISSN (print)0169-2070
ScopeBusiness and International Management

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