How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frank McDonald. 2011. Watching the players at the climate poker table. Nature 480, 7377 (December 2011), 293.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jürg Müller and Christoph W. Müller. 2014. Structural biology: Enzyme-chromatin complex visualized. Nature 514, 7524 (October 2014), 572–573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tetsu Tsubogo, Hidekazu Oyamada, and Shū Kobayashi. 2015. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts. Nature 520, 7547 (April 2015), 329–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yasuyo Shigetani, Fumiaki Sugahara, Yayoi Kawakami, Yasunori Murakami, Shigeki Hirano, and Shigeru Kuratani. 2002. Heterotopic shift of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in vertebrate jaw evolution. Science 296, 5571 (May 2002), 1316–1319.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Albert C. J. Luo and Yu Guo. 2013. Vibro-Impact Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Khalid Saeed and Wladyslaw Homenda (Eds.). 2015. Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management: 14th IFIP TC 8 International Conference, CISIM 2015, Warsaw, Poland, September 24-26, 2015, Proceedings (1st ed. 2015 ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hao Hu, Jian Li, and Hong Chen. 2016. Qualitative Interview for Chinese Medicine Research: Challenges and Prospects. In Evidence-based Research Methods for Chinese Medicine, Siu-Wai Leung and Hao Hu (eds.). Springer, Singapore, 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Algorithms.

Blog post
Jonathan O`Callaghan. 2017. New Type Of Planetary Object May Have Formed Earth And The Moon. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1980. GSA Lease Prospectuses Provide a Reasonable Basis for the Congress To Approve Proposed Space Acquisitions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rebecca L. Shipe. 2015. Creating productive ambiguity: A visual research narrative. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Linda Greenhouse. 2005. Roberts Court Hears Its First Case in Federalism Debate. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Algorithms
AbbreviationACM Trans. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1549-6325
ISSN (online)1549-6333

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