How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Algorithms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Monya Baker. 2011. Microscopy: Bright light, better labels. Nature 478, 7367 (October 2011), 137–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. J. Carson and D. Lo. 2001. Immunology. The push-me pull-you of T cell activation. Science 293, 5530 (July 2001), 618–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen-Lung Hung, Victor Gurarie, and Cheng Chin. 2013. From cosmology to cold atoms: observation of Sakharov oscillations in a quenched atomic superfluid. Science 341, 6151 (September 2013), 1213–1215.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Leonid A. Krivitsky, Jia Jun Wang, Zengbo Wang, and Boris Luk’yanchuk. 2013. Locomotion of microspheres for super-resolution imaging. Sci. Rep. 3, (December 2013), 3501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Louis Theodore and Robert G. Kunz. 2005. Nanotechnology: Environmental Implications and Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Stefano Markidis and Erwin Laure (Eds.). 2015. Solving Software Challenges for Exascale: International Conference on Exascale Applications and Software, EASC 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, April 2-3, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Caroline E. McParland and Cynthia A. Paszkowski. 2006. Effects of small-bodied fish on invertebrate prey and foraging patterns of waterbirds in Aspen Parkland wetlands. In Limnology and Aquatic Birds: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference Working Group on Aquatic Birds of Societas Internationalis Limnologiae (SIL), Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, August 3–7, 2003, Alan R. Hanson and Joseph J. Kerekes (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 43–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Algorithms.

Blog post
Danielle Andrew. 2017. How ‘Cannibalism’ By Breast Cancer Cells Promotes Dormancy: A Possible Clue Into Cancer Recurrence. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Aviation Forecasting: FAA Should Implement Additional Risk-Management Practices in Forecasting Aviation Activity. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gursharan Reehal. 2012. Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs. Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Erin St. John Kelly. 1993. Neediest Cases Assists With a Christmas Tree. New York Times, 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,4,6,8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Algorithms
AbbreviationACM Trans. Algorithms
ISSN (print)1549-6325
ISSN (online)1549-6333

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