How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Beckley, C., 2004. Biotech business Down Under. Nature 429, 5–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sinervo, B., Clobert, J., 2003. Morphs, dispersal behavior, genetic similarity, and the evolution of cooperation. Science 300, 1949–1951.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keizer, K., Lindenberg, S., Steg, L., 2008. The spreading of disorder. Science 322, 1681–1685.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gentile, G., Famaey, B., Zhao, H., Salucci, P., 2009. Universality of galactic surface densities within one dark halo scale-length. Nature 461, 627–628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grant, G., 2012. Ecosystem Services Come to Town. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Proulx, T. (Ed.), 2011. Dynamics of Civil Structures, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 28th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2010, Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sela, Y., Pham, M.N., Shackelford, T.K., 2015. Do Men and Women Perform Oral Sex as Mate Retention Behavior?, in: Shackelford, T.K., Hansen, R.D. (Eds.), The Evolution of Sexuality, Evolutionary Psychology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 69–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. These US Military Drones Can Swarm Together Using A Hive Mind [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Meeting the Aviation Challenges of the 1990s: Experts Define Key Problems and Identify Emerging Issues (No. RCED-91-152). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauterbach, J.R., 2017. Golf in the Collective: Playing in Liminal Space (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. In Ruling on Insider Trading, A Court Restores Rationality. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Beckley, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Beckley, 2004; Sinervo and Clobert, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sinervo and Clobert, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Gentile et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0168-1605
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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