How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, C., 2000. MIDDLE SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT: Asia Stays on Top, U.S. in Middle in New Global Rankings. Science 290, 1866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trumbore, S.E., Gaudinski, J.B., 2003. Atmospheric science. The secret lives of roots. Science 302, 1344–1345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Flachsova, M., Sindelka, R., Kubista, M., 2013. Single blastomere expression profiling of Xenopus laevis embryos of 8 to 32-cells reveals developmental asymmetry. Sci. Rep. 3, 2278.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Engin, F., Nguyen, T., Yermalovich, A., Hotamisligil, G.S., 2014. Aberrant islet unfolded protein response in type 2 diabetes. Sci. Rep. 4, 4054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ng, R., 2005. Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Colombo, J., 2015. Clinical Autonomic Dysfunction: Measurement, Indications, Therapies, and Outcomes. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Girtz, K., Mullins, B., Rice, M., Lopez, J., 2016. Practical Application Layer Emulation in Industrial Control System Honeypots, in: Rice, M., Shenoi, S. (Eds.), Critical Infrastructure Protection X: 10th IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference, ICCIP 2016, Arlington, VA, USA, March 14-16, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 83–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Where In The Ocean Did Iconic Spiral Ammonites Live? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. FAA Budget Policies and Practices (No. GAO-04-841R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrin, E.M., 2012. Individual Doubles: A Look at Twinship and Attachment Theory (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 1993. Who’s the Greatest of Them All? New York Times 724.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holden, 2000; Trumbore and Gaudinski, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trumbore and Gaudinski, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Engin et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0168-1605
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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