How to format your references using the International Journal of Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ernst, T., 2013. Engineering. Controlling the polarity of silicon nanowire transistors. Science 340, 1414–1415.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramson, J., Vartanian, A.S., 2013. Biochemistry. Watch water flow. Science 340, 1294–1295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown, E.T., Molnar, P., Bourlès, D.L., 2005. Comment on “Slip-rate measurements on the Karakorum Fault may imply secular variations in fault motion.” Science 309, 1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Alewell, C., Manderscheid, B., Meesenburg, H., Bittersohl, J., 2000. Is acidification still an ecological threat? Nature 407, 856–7; discussion 857-8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, 1995. Guidelines for Safe Storage and Handling of Reactive Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Halliwell, B.B., Poulsen, H.E. (Eds.), 2006. Cigarette Smoke and Oxidative Stress. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kosnik, L., 2006. Breakthrough Demand-Capacity Management Strategies to Improve Hospital Flow, Safety, and Satisfaction, in: Hall, R.W. (Ed.), Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 101–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. 10 Science Facts We Still Get Wrong [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Leadership and Systems Needed to Effect Financial Management Improvements (No. GAO-02-551T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang, S.J., 2014. Adapting Korean Cinderella Folklore as Fairy Tales for Children (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. A Raid on Men’s Closets. New York Times E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McEwen, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Croce, 2015; Draaisma, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abramson and Vartanian, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Gutmann et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Food Microbiol.
ISSN (print)0168-1605
ScopeFood Science
General Medicine

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