How to format your references using the International Journal of Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. World view: Defending democracy. Nature. 2010;465(7298):546.
A journal article with 2 authors
McSweeney S, Fromme P. Crystallography: Sources of inspiration. Nature. 2014;505(7485):620-621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sahu G, Sukumaran S, Bera AK. Pannexins form gap junctions with electrophysiological and pharmacological properties distinct from connexins. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4955.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huber DL, Manginell RP, Samara MA, Kim B-I, Bunker BC. Programmed adsorption and release of proteins in a microfluidic device. Science. 2003;301(5631):352-354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene J. Clients with Complex Needs: Interprofessional Practice. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Batten L, Li G, eds. Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 6th International Conference, ATIS 2016, Cairns, QLD, Australia, October 26-28, 2016, Proceedings. Vol 651. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fei S, Crawford M, Schibig J. Assisting Natural Resource Management in Mammoth Cave National Park Using Geospatial Technology. In: Hoalst-Pullen N, Patterson MW, eds. Geospatial Technologies in Environmental Management. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010:49-61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epilepsy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Whatever The Strangest Star In The Galaxy Is, It’s Sure To Be Amazing. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Samble JN. Persistence and Advancement in NCAA Division I: Lived Experiences of Female Athletic Administrators. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Student Debt Collectible by Social Security. New York Times. December 8, 2005:A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epilepsy
AbbreviationInt. J. Epilepsy
ISSN (print)2213-6320
ScopeClinical Neurology

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