How to format your references using the International Journal of Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nabel GJ. Philosophy of science. The coordinates of truth. Science. 2009;326(5949):53-54.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappuoli R, Aderem A. A 2020 vision for vaccines against HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Nature. 2011;473(7348):463-469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley P, Misura KMS, Baker D. Toward high-resolution de novo structure prediction for small proteins. Science. 2005;309(5742):1868-1871.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Webb C-HT, Riccitelli NJ, Ruminski DJ, Lupták A. Widespread occurrence of self-cleaving ribozymes. Science. 2009;326(5955):953.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davino C, Furno M, Vistocco D. Quantile Regression: Theory and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Tang J. Lanthanide Single Molecule Magnets. (Zhang P, ed.). Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Pazderski D, Kozłowski KR, Krysiak B. Nonsmooth Stabilizer for Three Link Nonholonomic Manipulator Using Polar-like Coordinate Representation. In: Kozłowski KR, ed. Robot Motion and Control 2009. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Springer; 2009:35-44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epilepsy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Third Largest Dwarf Planet Has A Moon. IFLScience. Published May 19, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Time Issues Affecting the Global Positioning System. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Batson G. Head Start and at -risk students: Perceptions of administrators, practitioners, and parents. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. ‘Sisters in Law.’ New York Times. September 20, 2015:BR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epilepsy
AbbreviationInt. J. Epilepsy
ISSN (print)2213-6320
ScopeClinical Neurology

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