How to format your references using the International Journal of Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemmer P. Chemistry. Toward molecular-scale MRI. Science. 2013;339(6119):529-530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brovkin V, Claussen M. Comment on “Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the Sahara: the past 6000 years.” Science. 2008;322(5906):1326; author reply 1326.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen Y, Knoll AH, Walter MR. Evidence for low sulphate and anoxia in a mid-Proterozoic marine basin. Nature. 2003;423(6940):632-635.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yvan-Charvet L, Pagler T, Gautier EL, et al. ATP-binding cassette transporters and HDL suppress hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. Science. 2010;328(5986):1689-1693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smeets R, der Sluis L van, Kapetanović M, Peelo DF, Janssen A. Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Chen SB. Intelligentized Methodology for Arc Welding Dynamical Processes. Vol 29. (Wu J, ed.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Harman O. War or Peace? Huxley and Kropotkin’s Battle Over the Design of Virtue. In: Swan L, Gordon R, Seckbach J, eds. Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary Look at How Design Emerges in Complex Systems, Especially Life. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. Springer Netherlands; 2012:87-110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epilepsy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Physicists Discover Particle Made Entirely Of Nuclear Force. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Truck Safety: Need to Better Ensure Correction of Serious Inspection Violations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Matsuda T. Computational Proposal for Locating Local Defects in Superconducting Tapes. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr, Ferré-Sadurní L. Trial for Brazen Murder Brings Mother No Solace. New York Times. July 21, 2017:A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epilepsy
AbbreviationInt. J. Epilepsy
ISSN (print)2213-6320
ScopeClinical Neurology

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