How to format your references using the International Journal of Epilepsy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Epilepsy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gong JP. Materials science. Materials both tough and soft. Science. 2014;344(6180):161-162.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Y, Daum PH. Anthropogenic aerosols. Indirect warming effect from dispersion forcing. Nature. 2002;419(6907):580-581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akil H, Martone ME, Van Essen DC. Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data. Science. 2011;331(6018):708-712.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nowoshilow S, Schloissnig S, Fei JF, et al. The axolotl genome and the evolution of key tissue formation regulators. Nature. 2018;554(7690):50-55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer G, Vovk V. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game! John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Yilbas BS. Flexural Testing of Weld Site and HVOF Coating Characteristics. (Al-Zaharnah I, Sahin A, eds.). Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Dragon R, Fenzi M, Siberski W, Rosenhahn B, Ostermann J. Towards Feature-Based Situation Assessment for Airport Apron Video Surveillance. In: Dellaert F, Frahm JM, Pollefeys M, Leal-Taixé L, Rosenhahn B, eds. Outdoor and Large-Scale Real-World Scene Analysis: 15th International Workshop on Theoretical Foundations of Computer Vision, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, June 26 - July 1, 2011. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:110-130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Epilepsy.

Blog post
Hale T. What Actually Is The Insanely Potent VX Nerve Agent That Killed Kim Jong-Nam? IFLScience. Published February 24, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aircraft Certification: New FAA Approach Needed to Meet Challenges of Advanced Technology. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan TJ. Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes Sapidus. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Medina J, Pérez-Peña R, Schmidt MS, Goodstein L. Arms Stockpile Is Found in Home of Two Suspects. New York Times. December 3, 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Epilepsy
AbbreviationInt. J. Epilepsy
ISSN (print)2213-6320
ScopeClinical Neurology

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