How to format your references using the Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blackmore, S. Environment. Biodiversity Update--Progress in Taxonomy. Science 2002, 298, 365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ewing, R.C.; von Hippel, F.N. Energy. Nuclear Waste Management in the United States--Starting Over. Science 2009, 325, 151–152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doeller, C.F.; Barry, C.; Burgess, N. Evidence for Grid Cells in a Human Memory Network. Nature 2010, 463, 657–661.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zheng, Y.; Danilenko, D.M.; Valdez, P.; Kasman, I.; Eastham-Anderson, J.; Wu, J.; Ouyang, W. Interleukin-22, a T(H)17 Cytokine, Mediates IL-23-Induced Dermal Inflammation and Acanthosis. Nature 2007, 445, 648–651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood, J.M. Wiley Gaap 2015; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118945056.
An edited book
Ferretti, M. The Creation of Local Innovation Systems in Emerging Countries: The Role of Governments, Firms and Universities; Parmentola, A., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Regional Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319104393.
A chapter in an edited book
Ülgener, M.F. Obligations and Liabilities of the Carrier. In The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea: An Appraisal of the “Rotterdam Rules”; Güner-Özbek, M.D., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 139–153 ISBN 9783642196492.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests.

Blog post
Andrews, R. These Extraordinary Wind Turbines Could Power Japan For Half A Century Using Just One Typhoon Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Army Corps of Engineers: An Assessment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement of the Lower Snake River Dams; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, C. A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. A Hockey Luminary Glowed With Modesty. New York Times 2016, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForests
ISSN (online)1999-4907

Other styles