How to format your references using the Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson, C.M. Getting out of Shape. Nature 2002, 418, 729–730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, D.A.; Baum, C. Medicine. Gene Therapy--New Challenges Ahead. Science 2003, 302, 400–401.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer, G.; Dushoff, J.; Yee, S.H. The Combined Effects of Pathogens and Predators on Insect Outbreaks. Nature 2004, 430, 341–345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fuentes-Prior, P.; Iwanaga, Y.; Huber, R.; Pagila, R.; Rumennik, G.; Seto, M.; Morser, J.; Light, D.R.; Bode, W. Structural Basis for the Anticoagulant Activity of the Thrombin-Thrombomodulin Complex. Nature 2000, 404, 518–525.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B.M. Fundamentals of Ionized Gases; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2011; ISBN 9783527637102.
An edited book
Optical Wireless Communications: An Emerging Technology; Uysal, M., Capsoni, C., Ghassemlooy, Z., Boucouvalas, A., Udvary, E., Eds.; Signals and Communication Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319302003.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandercock, L. What Is a Neighbourhood House? In Where Strangers Become Neighbours: Integrating Immigrants in Vancouver, Canada; Attili, G., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp. 115–121 ISBN 9781402090349.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Scientists Identify A Mechanism That Facilitates Brain Repair Following Stroke (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Reports Issued in July 1988; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1988;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kotch, S. Unduly Harsh and Unworkably Rigid: The Death Penalty in North Carolina, 1910–1961. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. Virtual Target Previews Fall. New York Times 2010, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForests
ISSN (online)1999-4907

Other styles