How to format your references using the Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Snow, C.E. Academic Language and the Challenge of Reading for Learning about Science. Science 2010, 328, 450–452.
A journal article with 2 authors
Köhler, H.-R.; Triebskorn, R. Wildlife Ecotoxicology of Pesticides: Can We Track Effects to the Population Level and Beyond? Science 2013, 341, 759–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schroder, K.; Zhou, R.; Tschopp, J. The NLRP3 Inflammasome: A Sensor for Metabolic Danger? Science 2010, 327, 296–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goodnow, C.C.; Sprent, J.; Fazekas de St Groth, B.; Vinuesa, C.G. Cellular and Genetic Mechanisms of Self Tolerance and Autoimmunity. Nature 2005, 435, 590–597.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holzer, S.M. Statische Beurteilung Historischer Tragwerke; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; ISBN 9783433603703.
An edited book
Functional Equations and How to Solve Them; Small, C.G., Ed.; Problem Books in Mathematics; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; ISBN 9780387345345.
A chapter in an edited book
McCauley, D.J. Fool’s Gold in the Catskill Mountains: Thinking Critically about the Ecosystem Services Paradigm. In Protecting the Wild: Parks and Wilderness, the Foundation for Conservation; Wuerthner, G., Crist, E., Butler, T., Eds.; Island Press/Center for Resource Economics: Washington, DC, 2015; pp. 36–40 ISBN 9781597261111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Spectacular Solar Eruption Caught On Camera Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities and Potential Improvements for the Air Cargo System; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kopaygorodsky, E. Mathematical Model of Ultra-Rapid PSA. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Just Answer the Question. New York Times 2010, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForests
ISSN (online)1999-4907

Other styles