How to format your references using the Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meyer, E. Physics. Controlling friction atom by atom. Science 2015, 348, 1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen, F.E.; Kelly, J.W. Therapeutic approaches to protein-misfolding diseases. Nature 2003, 426, 905–909.
A journal article with 3 authors
Upadhyay, D.; Scherer, E.E.; Mezger, K. (142)Nd evidence for an enriched Hadean reservoir in cratonic roots. Nature 2009, 459, 1118–1121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bankovich, A.J.; Raunser, S.; Juo, Z.S.; Walz, T.; Davis, M.M.; Garcia, K.C. Structural insight into pre-B cell receptor function. Science 2007, 316, 291–294.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Joule, J.A.; Mills, K. Heterocyclic Chemistry at a Glance; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118380208.
An edited book
Jensen, R.R. Geo-Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments; Gatrell, J.D., McLean, D.D., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; ISBN 9783540222637.
A chapter in an edited book
Šimko, J.; Bieliková, M. PexAce: A Method for Image Metadata Acquisition. In Semantic Acquisition Games: Harnessing Manpower for Creating Semantics; Bieliková, M., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 67–80 ISBN 9783319061146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Breaking The Link Between A Conservative Worldview And Climate Skepticism (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office School Age Demographics: Recent Trends Pose New Educational Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nam, Y.-H. On Throughput-Reliability-Delay Tradeoffs in Wireless Networks. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chivers, C.J.; SOPHIA KISHKOVSKY; Erin Arvedlund contributed reporting from Moscow for this article U.S. Investigative Journalist Is Shot to Death in Russia. New York Times 2004, A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForests
ISSN (online)1999-4907

Other styles