How to format your references using the Forests citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forests. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes, D. The problem with platinum. Nature 2015, 527, S218-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Punnoose, A.; Finkel’stein, A.M. Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems. Science 2005, 310, 289–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marteau, T.M.; Hollands, G.J.; Fletcher, P.C. Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science 2012, 337, 1492–1495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nizak, C.; Monier, S.; del Nery, E.; Moutel, S.; Goud, B.; Perez, F. Recombinant antibodies to the small GTPase Rab6 as conformation sensors. Science 2003, 300, 984–987.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cann, A.J. Mathe für Biologen; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2004; ISBN 9783527662579.
An edited book
Past and Present Interactions in Legal Reasoning and Logic; Armgardt, M., Canivez, P., Chassagnard-Pinet, S., Eds.; Logic, Argumentation & Reasoning, Interdisciplinary Perspectives from the Humanities and Social Sciences; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 7; ISBN 9783319160207.
A chapter in an edited book
Choi, B.I.; Lee, J.M. Preoperative Imaging. In Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Lau, W.Y., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2013; pp. 53–64 ISBN 9789400764729.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forests.

Blog post
Hale, T. Cost Of Hurricane Damage In The US Could Triple By 2100 Due To Global Warming Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Airline Competition: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J.R. Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the performance of Vietnamese American identities. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. A 26-Year Dispute Over a Tower, With No End in Sight. New York Times 2001, 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForests
ISSN (online)1999-4907

Other styles