How to format your references using the Medical Hypotheses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Hypotheses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Appelbaum FR. Retrospective. E. Donnall Thomas (1920-2012). Science 2012;338:1163.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wohlers A, Wood BJ. A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle (142)Nd. Nature 2015;520:337–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Magnuson JJ, Safina C, Sissenwine MP. Ecology and conservation. Whose fish are they anyway? Science 2001;293:1267–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Petersen KF, Befroy D, Dufour S, Dziura J, Ariyan C, Rothman DL, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the elderly: possible role in insulin resistance. Science 2003;300:1140–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Gardner S, Birley S. Blogging for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Ng W-K, Kitsuregawa M, Li J, Chang K, editors. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 10th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2006, Singapore, April 9-12, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 3918. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Riley L, Atkinson K, Payne T, Black E. An Implemented Dialogue System for Inquiry and Persuasion. In: Modgil S, Oren N, Toni F, editors. Theorie and Applications of Formal Argumentation: First International Workshop, TAFA 2011. Barcelona, Spain, July 16-17, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Hypotheses.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Contributing To Dolphin Strandings. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-contributing-dolphin-strandings/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Important Progress Made to Develop Business Enterprise Architecture, but Much Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Packer CD. School Referenda and Ohio Department of Education Typologies: An Investigation of the Outcomes of First Attempt School Operating Levies from 2002–2010. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kishkovsky S. The Tortured Voice of Russia’s Lost Generation. New York Times 2007:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Hypotheses
AbbreviationMed. Hypotheses
ISSN (print)0306-9877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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