How to format your references using the Medical Hypotheses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Hypotheses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Macilwain C. World view: Out of service. Nature 2009;462:846.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Buschman TJ, Miller EK. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science 2007;315:1860–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gosse NJ, Nevin LM, Baier H. Retinotopic order in the absence of axon competition. Nature 2008;452:892–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Cantó C, Gerhart-Hines Z, Feige JN, Lagouge M, Noriega L, Milne JC, et al. AMPK regulates energy expenditure by modulating NAD+ metabolism and SIRT1 activity. Nature 2009;458:1056–60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Kar P. Doping in Conjugated Polymers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Dietrich M, Haase J, editors. Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
McKean PG, Gull K. The Flagellar Pocket of Trypanosomatids: A Critical Feature for Cell Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity. In: de Souza W, editor. Structures and Organelles in Pathogenic Protists, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 87–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Hypotheses.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. The Universe Really Is Weird: A Landmark Quantum Experiment Has Finally Proved It So. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/universe-really-weird-landmark-quantum-experiment-has-finally-proved-it-so/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Lummi Indian School of Aquaculture. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Whitehead CF. Teacher perceptions of the effects of parentification on social interactions in the school setting. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Supreme Court Takes Up 2 Cases Challenging Powers of U.S. Regulators to Protect Wetlands. New York Times 2005:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Hypotheses
AbbreviationMed. Hypotheses
ISSN (print)0306-9877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles