How to format your references using the Medical Hypotheses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Hypotheses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachdev H. MATERIALS SCIENCE. Disclosing boron’s thinnest side. Science 2015;350:1468–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aqvist J, Luzhkov V. Ion permeation mechanism of the potassium channel. Nature 2000;404:881–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Truckses DM, Garrenton LS, Thorner J. Jekyll and Hyde in the microbial world. Science 2004;306:1509–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
McManus JF, Francois R, Gherardi J-M, Keigwin LD, Brown-Leger S. Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes. Nature 2004;428:834–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene A. Keene on the Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Derby B, Akhtar R, editors. Mechanical Properties of Aging Soft Tissues. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Nourbakhsh SA, Jaumotte BA, Hirsch C, Parizi HB. Axial and Radial Thrusts. In: Nourbakhsh SA, Jaumotte BA, Hirsch C, Parizi HB, editors. Turbopumps and Pumping Systems, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Hypotheses.

Blog post
Andrew D. This Much Will Kill You. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Moving into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Singh A. Improving the Usability of Typometric Solutions. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Haberman M. Friend Suggests Trump May Fire Special Counsel. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Hypotheses
AbbreviationMed. Hypotheses
ISSN (print)0306-9877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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