How to format your references using the Medical Hypotheses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Hypotheses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Howard K. San Diego. Nature 2003;426:689.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction. Nature 2002;420:70–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Wu DW-L, Bischof WF, Kingstone A. Looking while eating: the importance of social context to social attention. Sci Rep 2013;3:2356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Burdet E, Osu R, Franklin DW, Milner TE, Kawato M. The central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics by learning optimal impedance. Nature 2001;414:446–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Wood T, Anderson M, Analytics F. The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
[1]
Battiato S, Blanc-Talon J, Gallo G, Philips W, Popescu D, Scheunders P, editors. Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 16th International Conference, ACIVS 2015, Catania, Italy, October 26-29, 2015. Proceedings. vol. 9386. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lei K, Tang H, Zeng Y. Keywords Extraction via Multi-relational Network Construction. In: Nagamalai D, Kumar A, Annamalai A, editors. Advances in Computational Science, Engineering and Information Technology: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Science, Engineering and Information Technology (CCSEIT-2013), KTO Karatay University, June 7-9, 2013, Konya,Turkey - Volume 1, Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing; 2013, p. 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Hypotheses.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. 9 Animal “Facts” Everyone Gets Wrong. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/10-animal-facts-we-still-get-wrong/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Innovation Research: Agencies Need to Strengthen Efforts to Improve the Completeness, Consistency, and Accuracy of Awards Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Robertson-Tessi M. Mathematical models of tumor growth and therapy. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
THEODORE HERMANBONNIE BURKEDANIEL ROTHFRANKLIN L. TOWBERMARK ARONOFFKATHLEEN KELLY(Prof.) HOWARD A. SCARROWSTEPHEN JOEL TRACHTENBERG. Letters; America’s Burden in the Afghanistan Crisis Impotence in the Face of Soviet Aggression Let Russian Commerce Have an Ice-Free Port Set for San Juan Hill? The Sounds Of Mandarin Sex and the Monarchy A Single-Issue Party’s Clout Errant Philanthropy. New York Times 1980:The Week In ReviewE20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Hypotheses
AbbreviationMed. Hypotheses
ISSN (print)0306-9877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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