How to format your references using the Medical Hypotheses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Hypotheses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A. SOLAR SYSTEM EXPLORATION: A More Cautious NASA Sets Plans for Mars. Science 2000;290:915a–6a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Walsh EC, Stainier DY. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase required for cardiac valve formation in zebrafish. Science 2001;293:1670–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen AJ, Mori-Sánchez P, Yang W. Insights into current limitations of density functional theory. Science 2008;321:792–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Murata K, Mitsuoka K, Hirai T, Walz T, Agre P, Heymann JB, et al. Structural determinants of water permeation through aquaporin-1. Nature 2000;407:599–605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Edelstein LN, Waehler CA. What Do I Say? Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Brugger W, Karayanni M, editors. Religion in the Public Sphere: A Comparative Analysis of German, Israeli, American and International Law. vol. 190. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Kharchenko V, Gordieiev O, Fedoseeva A. Profiling of Software Requirements for the Pharmaceutical Enterprise Manufacturing Execution System. In: Bris R, Majernik J, Pancerz K, Zaitseva E, editors. Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technology, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 67–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Hypotheses.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Measuring Distances To Stars Just Got A Whole Lot Easier Thanks To This “Stellar Twin” Trick. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need To Ensure Nondiscrimination in CETA Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delaney DC. Undergraduate social work students’ perceptions regarding hospice and end-of-life care. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Granderson’s Catches Add to October Lore. New York Times 2011:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Hypotheses
AbbreviationMed. Hypotheses
ISSN (print)0306-9877
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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