How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manolopoulos DE (2002) Reaction dynamics. Bending or breaking the rules? Science 296:664
A journal article with 2 authors
Willis KJ, Birks HJB (2006) What is natural? The need for a long-term perspective in biodiversity conservation. Science 314:1261–1265
A journal article with 3 authors
Liljas A, Ehrenberg M, Åqvist J (2011) Comment on “The mechanism for activation of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome.” Science 333:37; author reply 37
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Moser M, Legate KR, Zent R, Fässler R (2009) The tail of integrins, talin, and kindlins. Science 324:895–899

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazar Madjar H (2016) Radio Spectrum Management. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Määttä K, Uusiautti S (eds) (2013) Many Faces of Love. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Villani M, Serra R (2014) Attractors Perturbations in Biological Modelling: Avalanches and Cellular Differentiation. In: Cagnoni S, Mirolli M, Villani M (eds) Evolution, Complexity and Artificial Life. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 59–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Syphilis Sailed The Ocean Blue: Why A Bent Femur Won’t Overturn Columbus Theory. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Response to Specific Questions on the Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Study. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freeman J (2017) The Loudest Room. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM, Herrman J (2016) Once an Outlier, Breitbart Rises to Potent Voice. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Manolopoulos 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Manolopoulos 2002; Willis and Birks 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Willis and Birks 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Moser et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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