How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horvitz HR (2005) Obituary: Stanley J. Korsmeyer (1950-2005). Nature 435:161
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin JY, Fisher DE (2007) Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nature 445:843–850
A journal article with 3 authors
Gess RW, Coates MI, Rubidge BS (2006) A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa. Nature 443:981–984
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Keesing F, Belden LK, Daszak P, et al (2010) Impacts of biodiversity on the emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. Nature 468:647–652

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Matloff R, Chaillou JH (2013) Nonprofit Investment and Development Solutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Demetrikopoulos MK, Pecore JL (eds) (2016) Interplay of Creativity and Giftedness in Science. SensePublishers, Rotterdam
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng S, Shi Y (2011) Normalized Population Diversity in Particle Swarm Optimization. In: Tan Y, Shi Y, Chai Y, Wang G (eds) Advances in Swarm Intelligence: Second International Conference, ICSI 2011, Chongqing, China, June 12-15, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 38–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) How Other Primates Self-Medicate – And What They Could Teach Us. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Weaknesses in National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Facilities Utilization Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meza J (2013) A community outreach program for Latino immigrant families: Increasing service utilization. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L (2017) On When They Met, and Those Vacancies. New York Times A16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Horvitz 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Horvitz 2005; Lin and Fisher 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lin and Fisher 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Keesing et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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