How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dowdeswell JA (2006) Atmospheric science. The Greenland Ice Sheet and global sea-level rise. Science 311:963–964
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhoten D, Parker A (2004) Education. Risks and rewards of an interdisciplinary research path. Science 306:2046
A journal article with 3 authors
Sarbu T, Styranec T, Beckman EJ (2000) Non-fluorous polymers with very high solubility in supercritical CO2 down to low pressures. Nature 405:165–168
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ahn D-G, Kourakis MJ, Rohde LA, et al (2002) T-box gene tbx5 is essential for formation of the pectoral limb bud. Nature 417:754–758

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jacobsson M, Niemegeers I, Heemstra de Groot S (2010) Personal Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Großmann K (ed) (2015) Thermo-energetic Design of Machine Tools: A Systemic Approach to Solve the Conflict Between Power Efficiency, Accuracy and Productivity Demonstrated at the Example of Machining Production. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Baujard A, Igersheim H (2011) Framed-field Experiment on Approval Voting and Evaluation Voting. Some Teachings to Reform the French Presidential Electoral System. In: Dolez B, Grofman B, Laurent A (eds) In Situ and Laboratory Experiments on Electoral Law Reform: French Presidential Elections. Springer, New York, NY, pp 69–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Dragons Have REM Sleep Too. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Environmental Satellites: Improvements Needed in NOAA’s Mitigation Strategies as It Prepares for Potential Satellite Coverage Gaps. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vu MH (2010) Efficiency of pair-wise and multiple alignment algorithms in computational biology. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Friday File. New York Times C31

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dowdeswell 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Rhoten and Parker 2004; Dowdeswell 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rhoten and Parker 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahn et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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