How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mortlock D (2014) Astronomy: The age of the quasars. Nature 514:43–44
A journal article with 2 authors
Henderson GM, Slowey NC (2000) Evidence from U-Th dating against Northern Hemisphere forcing of the penultimate deglaciation. Nature 404:61–66
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagornova NS, Rizzo TR, Boyarkin OV (2012) Interplay of intra- and intermolecular H-bonding in a progressively solvated macrocyclic peptide. Science 336:320–323
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Taipale J, Cooper MK, Maiti T, Beachy PA (2002) Patched acts catalytically to suppress the activity of Smoothened. Nature 418:892–897

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wallgren A, Wallgren B (2014) Register-Based Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Pach J (ed) (2013) Thirty Essays on Geometric Graph Theory. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Saad APBM, Syahrom A, Harun MN, Kadir MRA (2016) Conclusion. In: Syahrom A, Harun MN, Kadir MRA (eds) Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–55

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Scientists Engineer First Bone Marrow-On-A-Chip. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Federal Research: SEMATECH’s Technological Progress and Proposed R&D Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales M (2017) Examining institutional career preparation: Student perceptions of their workplace readiness and the role of the university in student career development. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle S, Kanter J (2016) Dispute Between Lawmakers Turns Ugly. New York Times A3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mortlock 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Henderson and Slowey 2000; Mortlock 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Henderson and Slowey 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Taipale et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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