How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S (2004) Getting the meaning. Nature 428:776
A journal article with 2 authors
Vigevani L, Valcárcel J (2014) Molecular biology. A splicing magic bullet. Science 345:624–625
A journal article with 3 authors
Katsanis SH, Javitt G, Hudson K (2008) Public health. A case study of personalized medicine. Science 320:53–54
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Johnson CP, Tang H-Y, Carag C, et al (2007) Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science 317:663–666

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Noordenbos G (2013) Recovery from Eating Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford
An edited book
Castellano G, Jain LC, Fanelli AM (eds) (2009) Web Personalization in Intelligent Environments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Leite M, Silva A, Henriques E (2014) On the Influence of Material Selection Decisions on Second Order Cost Factors. In: Henriques E, Pecas P, Silva A (eds) Technology and Manufacturing Process Selection: The Product Life Cycle Perspective. Springer, London, pp 59–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Taub B (2016) Hangover-Free Alcohol Could Replace Normal Booze By 2050. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) [Department of the Interior: Migratory Bird Hunting Final Rule]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khayyat AM (2015) Use of near field communication technology to prevent consumption and usage of expired products. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) With Suit, Hedge Funds Seek to Freeze the Assets of a Top Puerto Rico Bank. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buckingham 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Buckingham 2004; Vigevani and Valcárcel 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vigevani and Valcárcel 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Johnson et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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