How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Armbrust EV (2009) The life of diatoms in the world’s oceans. Nature 459:185–192
A journal article with 2 authors
Shimamoto T, Togo T (2012) Geophysics. Earthquakes in the lab. Science 338:54–55
A journal article with 3 authors
Duthie C, Gibbs G, Burns KC (2006) Seed dispersal by weta. Science 311:1575
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Scala A, Starr FW, La Nave E, et al (2000) Configurational entropy and diffusivity of supercooled water. Nature 406:166–169

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cruz MG, Peters GW, Shevchenko PV (2015) Fundamental Aspects of Operational Risk and Insurance Analytics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dong G (ed) (2014) C-C Bond Activation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sweeney JD (2009) Transcutaneous Muscle Stimulation. In: Ho JD, Kroll MW (eds) TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology, Pathology, and Law. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 51–62

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew E (2013) The Most Extreme Weather In the Solar System. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Aviation Security: FAA Preboard Passenger Screening Test Results. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wallace DR (2006) A Comparative Analysis of a Conventional Versus a Computer-assisted Technique for Identification of Mechanical Power Press Hazards. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) For Olympic Contenders, the Prefontaine Serves as a Tuneup and as a Barometer. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vedral 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Sambridge 2003; Cyranoski 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shimamoto and Togo 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rifkin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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