How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Camerer CF (2003) Psychology and economics. Strategizing in the brain. Science 300:1673–1675
A journal article with 2 authors
Cantó C, Auwerx J (2012) Cell biology. FGF21 takes a fat bite. Science 336:675–676
A journal article with 3 authors
Blaha G, Stanley RE, Steitz TA (2009) Formation of the first peptide bond: the structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome. Science 325:966–970
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gossa S, Nayak D, Zinselmeyer BH, McGavern DB (2014) Development of an immunologically tolerated combination of fluorescent proteins for in vivo two-photon imaging. Sci Rep 4:6664

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn GJ, Doganaksoy N (2011) A Career in Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mamoulis N, Seidl T, Pedersen TB, et al (eds) (2009) Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases: 11th International Symposium, SSTD 2009 Aalborg, Denmark, July 8-10, 2009 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Rolando A, Di Vita S (2016) Reference Case Studies and Best Practices. In: Rolando A, Di Vita S (eds) From Smart City to Smart Region: Digital Services for an Internet of Places. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 73–91

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) A Planet Is Being Devoured By Its Young Star. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kino MY (2015) My Concierge MD, Inc. a business plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2001) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Chechnya Death Toll. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Camerer 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Camerer 2003; Cantó and Auwerx 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cantó and Auwerx 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Gossa et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Technol. High. Educ.
ISSN (online)2365-9440

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