How to format your references using the Foundations of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foundations of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N.: Come into the light. Nature. 483, S38-9 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Falzarano, D., Feldmann, H.: Virology. Delineating Ebola entry. Science. 347, 947–948 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Burtally, N., King, P.J., Swift, M.R.: Spontaneous air-driven separation in vertically vibrated fine granular mixtures. Science. 295, 1877–1879 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Asher, R.J., Meng, J., Wible, J.R., McKenna, M.C., Rougier, G.W., Dashzeveg, D., Novacek, M.J.: Stem Lagomorpha and the antiquity of Glires. Science. 307, 1091–1094 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monino, J.-L., Sedkaoui, S.: Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
Martin, M.J., Beekley, A.C. eds: Front Line Surgery: A Practical Approach. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Miranda, J.P., Carrillo, D., Mathilde, F., de Figueiredo, F.A.P., Bazzo, J.J.: Wavelet-Based Narrowband Interference Suppression in Long Term Evolution Physical Channels. In: Paradisi, A., Yacoub, M.D., Lira Figueiredo, F., and Tronco, T. (eds.) Long Term Evolution: 4G and Beyond. pp. 79–101. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foundations of Physics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: New iPad? Tech Firms Have Abandoned Radical Innovation For Mediocrity,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Department of Education: Information Needs Are at the Core of Management Challenges Facing the Department. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1998)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada, T.: Corporate culture and organizational efficiency in the competitive international market, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K.: World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Floods Wreak Havoc, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoundations of Physics
AbbreviationFound. Phys.
ISSN (print)0015-9018
ISSN (online)1572-9516
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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