How to format your references using the Foundations of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foundations of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondro, W.: CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES: Funding of 2000 Slots Sets Off Musical Chairs. Science. 288, 2112 (2000)
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, W., Du, J.: Ultrasound and pH dually responsive polymer vesicles for anticancer drug delivery. Sci. Rep. 3, 2162 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Labidi, J., Cartigny, P., Moreira, M.: Non-chondritic sulphur isotope composition of the terrestrial mantle. Nature. 501, 208–211 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grohme, M.A., Schloissnig, S., Rozanski, A., Pippel, M., Young, G.R., Winkler, S., Brandl, H., Henry, I., Dahl, A., Powell, S., Hiller, M., Myers, E., Rink, J.C.: The genome of Schmidtea mediterranea and the evolution of core cellular mechanisms. Nature. 554, 56–61 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hites, R.A., Raff, J.D.: Elements of Environmental Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Kind, M., Peukert, W., Rehage, H., Schuchmann, H.P. eds: Colloid Process Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Dai, Y., Steinberger, J.: Indifferentiability of 8-Round Feistel Networks. In: Robshaw, M. and Katz, J. (eds.) Advances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2016: 36th Annual International Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, August 14-18, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. pp. 95–120. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foundations of Physics.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Earliest Evidence of Man-Made Pollution Found in Tartar on 400,000-Year-Old Teeth,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Government Civil Aircraft: Longstanding Management Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S.A.: Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J.: How a Network Missed Out On the Weinstein Exposé, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoundations of Physics
AbbreviationFound. Phys.
ISSN (print)0015-9018
ISSN (online)1572-9516
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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