How to format your references using the Foundations of Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foundations of Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glazebrook, K.: Galaxy formation: Too small to ignore. Nature. 460, 694–695 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Kramer, G.J., Haigh, M.: No quick switch to low-carbon energy. Nature. 462, 568–569 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
Zaks, B., Liu, R.B., Sherwin, M.S.: Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions. Nature. 483, 580–583 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Du, X., Wen, J., Wang, Y., Karmaus, P.W.F., Khatamian, A., Tan, H., Li, Y., Guy, C., Nguyen, T.-L.M., Dhungana, Y., Neale, G., Peng, J., Yu, J., Chi, H.: Hippo/Mst signalling couples metabolic state and immune function of CD8α+ dendritic cells. Nature. 558, 141–145 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ollivier, J.-P., Torrenti, J.-M., Carcassès, M.: Physical Properties of Concrete and Concrete Constituents. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Tseng, V.S., Ho, T.B., Zhou, Z.-H., Chen, A.L.P., Kao, H.-Y. eds: Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: 18th Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2014, Tainan, Taiwan, May 13-16, 2014. Proceedings, Part II. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Dincer, I., Hogerwaard, J., Zamfirescu, C.: Potential Fuel Options. In: Hogerwaard, J. and Zamfirescu, C. (eds.) Clean Rail Transportation Options. pp. 75–89. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foundations of Physics.

Blog post
Davis, J.: Adults Retain Understanding Of Their Birth Language, Even If They Have Never Spoken It,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Savings Opportunity for the United States Mint’s Promotional Mailings. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armstrong, A.: Tactic-Based Learning for collective learning systems, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Peace Breaks Out in Conflict Over Nobel Statue, (2001)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFoundations of Physics
AbbreviationFound. Phys.
ISSN (print)0015-9018
ISSN (online)1572-9516
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy

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