How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Banin, A. (2005). Planetary science. The enigma of the martian soil. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5736), 888–890.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, J. R., & Simon, P. (2008). Materials science. Electrochemical capacitors for energy management. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5889), 651–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Psaltis, D., Quake, S. R., & Yang, C. (2006). Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics. Nature, 442(7101), 381–386.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fukuda, S., Toh, H., Hase, K., Oshima, K., Nakanishi, Y., Yoshimura, K., Tobe, T., Clarke, J. M., Topping, D. L., Suzuki, T., Taylor, T. D., Itoh, K., Kikuchi, J., Morita, H., Hattori, M., & Ohno, H. (2011). Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature, 469(7331), 543–547.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geier, R., Angelmaier, V., Graubner, C.-A., & Kohoutek, J. (2017). Integrale Brücken. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Grinin, L. (2015). Great Divergence and Great Convergence: A Global Perspective (A. Korotayev, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Peled, I., & Suzan, A. (2011). Pedagogical, Mathematical, and Epistemological Goals in Designing Cognitive Conflict Tasks for Teacher Education. In O. Zaslavsky & P. Sullivan (Eds.), Constructing Knowledge for Teaching Secondary Mathematics: Tasks to enhance prospective and practicing teacher learning (pp. 73–87). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, November 22). World’s Poorest Nations Pledge To Go 100% Renewable “As Rapidly As Possible.” IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Weather Forecasting: New Processing System Faces Uncertainties and Risks (T-AIMD-96-47). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
HaMai, T. (2014). The “other” women: What about the experiences of women faculty of color in community colleges? [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, December 28). Clinton Set for a Vacation Of Sports and Lots of Talk. New York Times, D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Banin, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Banin, 2005; Miller & Simon, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Miller & Simon, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Psaltis et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fukuda et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0883-0355

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