How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffert, M. (2011). Governments must pay for clean-energy innovation. Nature, 472(7342), 137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ransohoff, R. M., & Stevens, B. (2011). Neuroscience. How many cell types does it take to wire a brain? Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cottam, J., Paerels, F., & Mendez, M. (2002). Gravitationally redshifted absorption lines in the X-ray burst spectra of a neutron star. Nature, 420(6911), 51–54.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jiang, Z., Wen, G., Luo, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, Q., & Liang, A. (2014). A new silver nanorod SPR probe for detection of trace benzoyl peroxide. Scientific Reports, 4, 5323.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra, A. (2008). Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Swartz, R., & Richmond, S. (Eds.). (2014). The Hazard Called Education by Joseph Agassi: Essays, Reviews, and Dialogues on Education from Forty-Five Years. SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Klein, R., Vater, S., Paeschke, E., & Ruprecht, D. (2011). Multiple scales methods in meteorology. In H. Steinrück (Ed.), Asymptotic Methods in Fluid Mechanics: Survey and Recent Advances (pp. 127–196). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 9). “Oscars Of Science” Awarded At Star-Studded Awards Ceremony. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). High-Performance Computing: High-Speed Computer Networks in the United States, Europe, and Japan (IMTEC-91-69). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutter-Thomas, S. (2017). Sociocultural Evolution: An Examination of Unorthodox Elective Body Modification [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1997, November 30). Whose Hat? New York Times, 93.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffert, 2011; Ransohoff & Stevens, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ransohoff & Stevens, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Cottam et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0883-0355

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