How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ley, T. J. (2005). Retrospective: Stanley Joel Korsmeyer (1950-2005). Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723), 803–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hong, S., & Asai, T. (2014). Effect of panel shape of soccer ball on its flight characteristics. Scientific Reports, 4, 5068.
A journal article with 3 authors
Audouze, K., Brunak, S., & Grandjean, P. (2013). A computational approach to chemical etiologies of diabetes. Scientific Reports, 3, 2712.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Walburger, A., Koul, A., Ferrari, G., Nguyen, L., Prescianotto-Baschong, C., Huygen, K., Klebl, B., Thompson, C., Bacher, G., & Pieters, J. (2004). Protein kinase G from pathogenic mycobacteria promotes survival within macrophages. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5678), 1800–1804.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sarisky, D. (2012). Scriptural Interpretation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mazzola, G. (2011). Musical Creativity: Strategies and Tools in Composition and Improvisation (J. Park & F. Thalmann, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marbach-Ad, G., Egan, L. C., & Thompson, K. V. (2015). Preparing Graduate Students for Their Teaching Responsibilities. In L. C. Egan & K. V. Thompson (Eds.), A Discipline-Based Teaching and Learning Center: A Model for Professional Development (pp. 115–183). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 2). How Did Life On Earth Start? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Federal Trust and Other Earmarked Funds: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (GAO-01-199SP). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zamudio, R. (2015). From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas’ successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman, J. (2017, August 11). Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times, MM16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ley, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hong & Asai, 2014; Ley, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hong & Asai, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Audouze et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Walburger et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0883-0355

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