How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Driehuys, B. (2006). Chemistry. Toward molecular imaging with xenon MRI. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5798), 432–433.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chandrashekar, C. M., & Busch, T. (2014). Quantum percolation and transition point of a directed discrete-time quantum walk. Scientific Reports, 4, 6583.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shuman, E. S., Barry, J. F., & Demille, D. (2010). Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule. Nature, 467(7317), 820–823.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bull, M. J., Jolley, K. A., Bray, J. E., Aerts, M., Vandamme, P., Maiden, M. C. J., Marchesi, J. R., & Mahenthiralingam, E. (2014). The domestication of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. Scientific Reports, 4, 7202.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yeakley, C. L., & Fiebrich, J. D. (2015). Collaborative Process Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Spaccapietra, S., Atzeni, P., Fages, F., Hacid, M.-S., Kifer, M., Mylopoulos, J., Pernici, B., Shvaiko, P., Trujillo, J., & Zaihrayeu, I. (Eds.). (2007). Journal on Data Semantics IX (Vol. 4601). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Saling, P. (2016). Eco-efficiency Assessment. In M. Finkbeiner (Ed.), Special Types of Life Cycle Assessment (pp. 115–178). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 5). Man Receives First Scalp And Skull Transplant. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Highway Infrastructure: FHWA Has Acted to Disclose the Limitations of Its Environmental Review Analysis (GAO-03-338R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, D. (2016). Does team patient care mean better patient outcomes? [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2017, January 15). The Paintings of an ‘Outsider’ Are (Finally) Revealed. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Driehuys, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Chandrashekar & Busch, 2014; Driehuys, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chandrashekar & Busch, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Shuman et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bull et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0883-0355

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