How to format your references using the International Journal of Educational Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Educational Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chapman, T. (2004). Proteins on the move. Nature, 430(6995), 111.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carter, L. J., & Pigford, T. H. (2005). Nuclear waste. Proof of safety at Yucca Mountain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 447–448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson, J. K., Peterson, M. R., & Freeman, R. D. (2003). Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5609), 1070–1072.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Meyer, W. K., Jamison, J., Richter, R., Woods, S. E., Partha, R., Kowalczyk, A., Kronk, C., Chikina, M., Bonde, R. K., Crocker, D. E., Gaspard, J., Lanyon, J. M., Marsillach, J., Furlong, C. E., & Clark, N. L. (2018). Ancient convergent losses of Paraoxonase 1 yield potential risks for modern marine mammals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 361(6402), 591–594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, T. E. (2013). A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Nesterenko, M. V. (2011). Thin Impedance Vibrators: Theory and Applications (V. A. Katrich, Y. M. Penkin, V. M. Dakhov, & S. L. Berdnik, Eds.; Vol. 95). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dimov, I., Georgieva, R., & Todorov, V. (2015). Balancing of Systematic and Stochastic Errors in Monte Carlo Algorithms for Integral Equations. In I. Dimov, S. Fidanova, & I. Lirkov (Eds.), Numerical Methods and Applications: 8th International Conference, NMA 2014, Borovets, Bulgaria, August 20-24, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 44–51). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Educational Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 8). Tiny Satellites Discover Biggest Stellar Heartbeat. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments (AA-97-18(2)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman, T. (2017). The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. (2001, August 26). MORE 65-M.P.H. ZONES. New York Times, 14NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chapman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Carter & Pigford, 2005; Chapman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carter & Pigford, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Thompson et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Meyer et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Educational Research
AbbreviationInt. J. Educ. Res.
ISSN (print)0883-0355

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