How to format your references using the International Journal of Early Years Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Early Years Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farokhzad, Omid C. 2015. “Nanotechnology: Platelet Mimicry.” Nature 526 (7571): 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pallen, Mark J., and Brendan W. Wren. 2007. “Bacterial Pathogenomics.” Nature 449 (7164): 835–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Haeshin, Bruce P. Lee, and Phillip B. Messersmith. 2007. “A Reversible Wet/Dry Adhesive Inspired by Mussels and Geckos.” Nature 448 (7151): 338–341.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lever, Colin, Tom Wills, Francesca Cacucci, Neil Burgess, and John O’Keefe. 2002. “Long-Term Plasticity in Hippocampal Place-Cell Representation of Environmental Geometry.” Nature 416 (6876): 90–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, David. 2007. Emerging Real Estate Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meleard, Sylvie. 2015. Stochastic Models for Structured Populations: Scaling Limits and Long Time Behavior. Edited by Vincent Bansaye. 1st ed. 2015. Vol. 1.4. Mathematical Biosciences Institute Lecture Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Cobley, Claire M., Seraphine V. Wegner, Martin Streichfuss, and Joachim P. Spatz. 2013. “Advances in Experimental Cell Biology and Cell-Material Interactions.” In Materiomics: Multiscale Mechanics of Biological Materials and Structures, edited by Markus J. Buehler and Roberto Ballarini, 87–105. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Early Years Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Gravity Saved the Universe After the Big Bang.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India. GAO-06-423. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ithier-Guzman, Warner. 2010. “Assessing the Ability of Soils and Sediment to Adsorb and Retain Cesium-137 in Puerto Rico.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, Michael. 2017. “Scaling Past Death.” New York Times, May 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farokhzad 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Farokhzad 2015; Pallen and Wren 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pallen and Wren 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Lee, and Messersmith 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lever et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Early Years Education
AbbreviationInt. J. Early Years Educ.
ISSN (print)0966-9760
ISSN (online)1469-8463
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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