How to format your references using the High Ability Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Ability Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dance, I. (2013). A molecular pathway for the egress of ammonia produced by nitrogenase. Scientific Reports, 3, 3237.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schraidt, O., & Marlovits, T. C. (2011). Three-dimensional model of Salmonella’s needle complex at subnanometer resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6021), 1192–1195.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kippenberg, T. J., Holzwarth, R., & Diddams, S. A. (2011). Microresonator-based optical frequency combs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6029), 555–559.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Herzing, A. A., Kiely, C. J., Carley, A. F., Landon, P., & Hutchings, G. J. (2008). Identification of active gold nanoclusters on iron oxide supports for CO oxidation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5894), 1331–1335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirwan, M. J. (2013). Handbook of Paper and Paperboard Packaging Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gartner, G., Cartwright, W., & Peterson, M. P. (Eds.). (2007). Location Based Services and TeleCartography. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kämäräinen, J.-K., Hadid, A., & Pietikäinen, M. (2011). Local Representation of Facial Features. In S. Z. Li & A. K. Jain (Eds.), Handbook of Face Recognition (pp. 79–108). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Ability Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, March 4). Amazing Photographs & Video Of Snake Devouring Crocodile. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Federal Student Loans: Education Needs to Improve Its Income-Driven Repayment Plan Budget Estimates (GAO-17-22). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kulavuz-Onal, D. (2013). English Language Teachers’ Learning to Teach with Technology through Participation in an Online Community of Practice: A Netnography of Webheads in Action [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2017, October 16). Staring Down Homelessness With a Wayfaring Spirit. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dance, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Dance, 2013; Schraidt & Marlovits, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schraidt & Marlovits, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Kippenberg et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Herzing et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Ability Studies
AbbreviationHigh Abil. Stud.
ISSN (print)1359-8139
ISSN (online)1469-834X

Other styles