How to format your references using the High Ability Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Ability Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heeney, J. L. (2015). Ebola: Hidden reservoirs. Nature, 527(7579), 453–455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pulk, A., & Cate, J. H. D. (2013). Control of ribosomal subunit rotation by elongation factor G. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6140), 1235970.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bell, F. I., McEwen, I. J., & Viney, C. (2002). Fibre science: supercontraction stress in wet spider dragline. Nature, 416(6876), 37.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lellouch, E., Paubert, G., Moses, J. I., Schneider, N. M., & Strobel, D. F. (2003). Volcanically emitted sodium chloride as a source for Io’s neutral clouds and plasma torus. Nature, 421(6918), 45–47.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, S., Xu, J.-X., Li, X., & Shen, D. (2017). Iterative Learning Control for Multi-agent Systems Coordination. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Street, B., Baker, D., & Tomlin, A. (Eds.). (2005). Navigating Numeracies: Home/School Numeracy Practices. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Simovici, D. A., & Djeraba, C. (2008). Lattices and Boolean Algebras. In C. Djeraba (Ed.), Mathematical Tools for Data Mining: Set Theory, Partial Orders, Combinatorics (pp. 173–224). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Ability Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 26). Bizarre Chemical Reaction Looks Like A Portal To Hell. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Opportunities and Constraints for Expanding Use of Research Facilities at the National Bureau of Standards (RCED-85-55). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffer, H. (2012). Aesthetics of destruction: Music and the worldview of Ikari Shinji in “Neon Genesis Evangelion” [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. K. K., formerly the on-air television critic for WNBC-TV’s ’ ’Live at Five, & ’ ’ teaches English to Amerasian children in Vietnam. (1990, August 19). A Polar Bear’s Picnic. New York Times, 514.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heeney, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Heeney, 2015; Pulk & Cate, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pulk & Cate, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Bell et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lellouch et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Ability Studies
AbbreviationHigh Abil. Stud.
ISSN (print)1359-8139
ISSN (online)1469-834X

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