How to format your references using the High Ability Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Ability Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schoeninger, M. J. (2012). Palaeoanthropology: the ancestral dinner table. Nature, 487(7405), 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Daily, G. C., & Walker, B. H. (2000). Seeking the great transition. Nature, 403(6767), 243–245.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wittkopp, P. J., Haerum, B. K., & Clark, A. G. (2004). Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature, 430(6995), 85–88.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, C., Ma, L., Liao, L., Bai, S., Long, R., Zuo, M., & Xiong, Y. (2013). A unique platinum-graphene hybrid structure for high activity and durability in oxygen reduction reaction. Scientific Reports, 3, 2580.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minenna, M. (2016). The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Viana, M. (Ed.). (2016). Indoor and Outdoor Nanoparticles: Determinants of Release and Exposure Scenarios (Vol. 48). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kleiber, M., & Kowalczyk, P. (2016). Description of Stress State. In P. Kowalczyk (Ed.), Introduction to Nonlinear Thermomechanics of Solids (pp. 115–141). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Ability Studies.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 24). Tiny Komodo Dragon Ancestor Lived In Europe 800,000 Years Ago. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened (GAO-10-981T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carlson, D. L. (2014). BOUND/(bang) [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2016, August 7). Here’s a Solution. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schoeninger, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Daily & Walker, 2000; Schoeninger, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Daily & Walker, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Wittkopp et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Ability Studies
AbbreviationHigh Abil. Stud.
ISSN (print)1359-8139
ISSN (online)1469-834X

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