How to format your references using the High Ability Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Ability Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sherwood Lollar, B. (2004). Geochemistry. Life’s chemical kitchen. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5673), 972–973.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, R. B., & Atkins, J. F. (2011). Molecular biology. Translation goes global. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1509–1510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, K. G., Jackson, J. B. C., & Budd, A. F. (2008). Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1521–1523.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bunker, D. E., Declerck, F., Bradford, J. C., Colwell, R. K., Perfecto, I., Phillips, O. L., … Naeem, S. (2005). Species loss and aboveground carbon storage in a tropical forest. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5750), 1029–1031.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, W., Chou, X., Shi, T., Ma, Z., Bao, H., Chen, J., … Xue, C. (2016). Measurement Technology for Micro-Nanometer Devices. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Klink, M. (Ed.). (2014). Interaction of Immune and Cancer Cells. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, H.-M., & Zheng, T.-X. (2016). Physical Layer Security in Heterogeneous Ad hoc Networks with Full-Duplex Receivers. In T.-X. Zheng (Ed.), Physical Layer Security in Random Cellular Networks (pp. 85–109). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Ability Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017, March 30). New Powerful Telescopes Allow Direct Imaging Of Nascent Galaxies 12 Billion Light-Years Away. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Audit by the District of Columbia’s Office of Municipal Audit and Inspection of the Expenditure of Funds by the District of Columbia Public Schools During Fiscal Years 1970 and 1971 (No. B-118638). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, K. R. (2010). The need for social workers in community clinic settings: A grant writing project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Taylor, K. (2015, July 28). Principal Acknowledged Forging Answers on Tests for Students, Officials Say. New York Times, p. A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sherwood Lollar, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sherwood Lollar, 2004; Weiss & Atkins, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss & Atkins, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Johnson, Jackson, & Budd, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bunker et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Ability Studies
AbbreviationHigh Abil. Stud.
ISSN (print)1359-8139
ISSN (online)1469-834X

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