How to format your references using the High Ability Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for High Ability Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scharmer, G. (2009). Astronomy. Sunspot flows and filaments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohlstein, B., & Spradling, A. (2007). Multipotent Drosophila intestinal stem cells specify daughter cell fates by differential notch signaling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5814), 988–992.
A journal article with 3 authors
Franzoni, C., Scellato, G., & Stephan, P. (2011). Science policy. Changing incentives to publish. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6043), 702–703.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chiritescu, C., Cahill, D. G., Nguyen, N., Johnson, D., Bodapati, A., Keblinski, P., & Zschack, P. (2007). Ultralow thermal conductivity in disordered, layered WSe2 crystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5810), 351–353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sóbester, A., & Forrester, A. I. J. (2014). Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Debreceny, R. (2007). New Dimensions of Business Reporting and XBRL (C. Felden & M. Piechocki, Eds.). DUV.
A chapter in an edited book
Blonder, R., & Sakhnini, S. (2016). What Are the Basic Concepts of Nanoscale Science and Technology (NST) that Should Be Included in NST Educational Programs? In K. Winkelmann & B. Bhushan (Eds.), Global Perspectives of Nanoscience and Engineering Education (pp. 117–127). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for High Ability Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, May 27). Ultimate Superbug Reaches USA. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Surface Transportation: Funding Limitations and Barriers To Cross-Modal Decision Making (T-RCED-93-25). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wester, A. M. (2013). Readers’ trust, socio-demographic, and acuity influences in citizen journalism credibility for disrupted online newspapers [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017, August 4). ADP Says Activist Investor Seeks Half Of Its Board Seats and a New C.E.O. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scharmer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ohlstein & Spradling, 2007; Scharmer, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohlstein & Spradling, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Franzoni et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chiritescu et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleHigh Ability Studies
AbbreviationHigh Abil. Stud.
ISSN (print)1359-8139
ISSN (online)1469-834X

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