How to format your references using the International Journal of Disaster Risk Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleiner, Kurt. 2007. The shipping forecast. Nature 449: 272–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butz, William P., and Barbara Boyle Torrey. 2006. Some frontiers in social science. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312: 1898–1900.
A journal article with 3 authors
Usdin, Martine, Martine Guillerm, and Pierre Chirac. 2006. Neglected tests for neglected patients. Nature 441: 283–284.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Goldstein, Steven L., Gad Soffer, Charles H. Langmuir, Kerstin A. Lehnert, David W. Graham, and Peter J. Michael. 2008. Origin of a “Southern Hemisphere” geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle. Nature 453: 89–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boxer, Harry. 2014. Profitable Day and Swing Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Caquard, Sébastien, Laurene Vaughan, and William Cartwright, ed. 2011. Mapping Environmental Issues in the City: Arts and Cartography Cross Perspectives. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Aydelotte, Brady, and Brian Schuster. 2016. Observation and Modeling of Cone Cracks in Ceramics. In Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, ed. Bo Song, Leslie Lamberson, Daniel Casem, and Jamie Kimberley, 19–23. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disaster Risk Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. How We Got To Now: Why The US And Europe Went Different Ways On GMOs. IFLScience. IFLScience. November 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Curriculum Case Studies Are of Questionable Quality but Helped Precollege Curriculum Activities. HRD-77-46. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, Kimberly C. 2013. Teacher and parent perceptions of classroom experiences of African American male students in a high school alternative program. Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, James. 2016. A Test From the Political Comedy Gods. New York Times, November 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleiner 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Butz and Torrey 2006; Kleiner 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butz and Torrey 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Goldstein et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disaster Risk Science
AbbreviationInt. J. Disaster Risk Sci.
ISSN (print)2095-0055
ISSN (online)2192-6395
ScopeGlobal and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development
Safety Research

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