How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, Colin. 2011. “Can Europe Build a Framework for Success?” Nature 473 (7348): 421.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleckner, Dustin, and Dirk Bouwmeester. 2006. “Sub-Kelvin Optical Cooling of a Micromechanical Resonator.” Nature 444 (7115): 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dalli, Jesmond, Romain A. Colas, and Charles N. Serhan. 2013. “Novel N-3 Immunoresolvents: Structures and Actions.” Scientific Reports 3: 1940.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lim, Daniel A., Yin-Cheng Huang, Tomek Swigut, Anika L. Mirick, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Joanna Wysocka, Patricia Ernst, and Arturo Alvarez-Buylla. 2009. “Chromatin Remodelling Factor Mll1 Is Essential for Neurogenesis from Postnatal Neural Stem Cells.” Nature 458 (7237): 529–533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Strohfeldt, Katja A. 2015. Essentials of Inorganic Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Schwartz, David D. 2015. Healthcare Partnerships for Pediatric Adherence: Promoting Collaborative Management for Pediatric Chronic Illness Care. Edited by Marni E. Axelrad. SpringerBriefs in Public Health. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pierce, Robyn, and Kaye Stacey. 2011. “Using Dynamic Geometry to Bring the Real World Into the Classroom.” In Model-Centered Learning: Pathways to Mathematical Understanding Using GeoGebra, edited by Lingguo Bu and Robert Schoen, 41–55. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Watch As Scientists Attempt To Preserve A Blue Whale Heart.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Guaranteed Student Loans: Lenders’ Interest Billings Often Result in Overpayments. HRD-88-72. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, Kelly. 2017. “Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Narratives: Personalization of Delivery via Brief Experimental Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2017. “Bill Murray’s Latest Surprise Career Turn.” New York Times, April 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2011; Kleckner and Bouwmeester 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kleckner and Bouwmeester 2006)
  • Three authors: (Dalli, Colas, and Serhan 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lim et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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