How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Menzel, Dietrich. 2002. “Surface Science. Water on a Metal Surface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 58–59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chander, R., and J. Mervis. 2001. “The Bottom Line for U.S. Life Scientists.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5541): 395.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazzini, Ariel A., Miler T. Lee, and Antonio J. Giraldez. 2012. “Ribosome Profiling Shows That MiR-430 Reduces Translation before Causing MRNA Decay in Zebrafish.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6078): 233–237.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chawla, A., J. J. Repa, R. M. Evans, and D. J. Mangelsdorf. 2001. “Nuclear Receptors and Lipid Physiology: Opening the X-Files.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5548): 1866–1870.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boyd, Robert K., Cecilia Basic, and Robert A. Bethem. 2008. Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Spagnolie, Saverio E., ed. 2015. Complex Fluids in Biological Systems: Experiment, Theory, and Computation. Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Anuradha, R. V., and Piyush Joshi. 2016. “Natural Resources Regime in India: Impact on Trade and Investment.” In Emerging Issues in Sustainable Development: International Trade Law and Policy Relating to Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment, edited by Mitsuo Matsushita and Thomas J. Schoenbaum, 59–76. Economics, Law, and Institutions in Asia Pacific. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “A New Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Discovered And It’s Orbited By A Pulsar!” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Federal Aviation Administration: Observations on Selected Changes to FAA’s Funding and Budget Structure in the Administration’s Reauthorization Proposal. GAO-07-625T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fang, Li. 2015. “Do Media Help Deter Financial Misreporting?” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “In Yanks-Phillies Rivalry, a Wife May Have Been the Key Player.” New York Times, February 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Menzel 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Menzel 2002; Chander and Mervis 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chander and Mervis 2001)
  • Three authors: (Bazzini, Lee, and Giraldez 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chawla et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

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