How to format your references using the African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walther, Gian-Reto. 2007. “Ecology. Tackling Ecological Complexity in Climate Impact Research.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5812): 606–607.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, Martin T. J., and John L. Rubinstein. 2014. “Structural Biology. Beyond Blob-Ology.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6197): 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stone, Lewi, Ronen Olinky, and Amit Huppert. 2007. “Seasonal Dynamics of Recurrent Epidemics.” Nature 446 (7135): 533–536.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Morey, Marta, Susan K. Yee, Tory Herman, Aljoscha Nern, Enrique Blanco, and S. Lawrence Zipursky. 2008. “Coordinate Control of Synaptic-Layer Specificity and Rhodopsins in Photoreceptor Neurons.” Nature 456 (7223): 795–799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, Alan W. 2008. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Turksen, Kursad, ed. 2015. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine. 1st ed. 2015. Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakano, Tadashi, and Jian-Qin Liu. 2009. “Information Transfer through Calcium Signaling.” In Nano-Net: 4th International ICST Conference, Nano-Net 2009, Lucerne, Switzerland, October 18-20, 2009. Proceedings, edited by Alexandre Schmid, Sanjay Goel, Wei Wang, Valeriu Beiu, and Sandro Carrara, 29–33. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Parkinson’s Therapy Revived After 20 Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Examination of Disbursing Transactions, Naval Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia. 092598. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McNamee, Lonnie. 2017. “Best Practices in Higher Education Faculty Motivation.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, Sophia. 2001. “The ‘Roswell’ Army Fights for Its Show on the Web.” New York Times, June 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Walther 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Walther 2007; Smith and Rubinstein 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Rubinstein 2014)
  • Three authors: (Stone, Olinky, and Huppert 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Morey et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican and Black Diaspora: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1752-8631
ISSN (online)1752-864X
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Sociology and Political Science
Cultural Studies

Other styles