How to format your references using the International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young RC. The sounds of silence. Nature 2000;408:141.
A journal article with 2 authors
England PC, Katz RF. Global systematics of arc volcano position. Nature 2010;468:E6-7; discussion E7-8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trail D, Watson EB, Tailby ND. The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth’s atmosphere. Nature 2011;480:79–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Müller CD, Falcou A, Reckefuss N, Rojahn M, Wiederhirn V, Rudati P, et al. Multi-colour organic light-emitting displays by solution processing. Nature 2003;421:829–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kusumoto F. Understanding Intracardiac EGMs. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Suh YJ, Berndt J, Ohnita Y, Kim BH, Lee H, editors. Real and Complex Submanifolds: Daejeon, Korea, August 2014. vol. 106. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Tiwari R, Herstatt C. Need for a Rethink. In: Herstatt C, editor. Aiming Big with Small Cars: Emergence of a Lead Market in India, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 89–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus.

Blog post
Andrew E. $250 Million Increase To NASA’s Budget Next Year. IFLScience 2014.’s-budget-next-year/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Administration: Achieving Business and Technical Goals In Tax Systems Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Astorga J. Mentoring program for emancipated foster youth: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tanenhaus S. The Spirit of ’14. New York Times 2014:MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Diabetes Mellitus
AbbreviationInt. J. Diabetes Mellit.
ISSN (print)1877-5934
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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