How to format your references using the Rheumatology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rheumatology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alexander RM. Biophysics. Antennae as gyroscopes. Science. 2007;315:771–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Robbins DW, Hartwig JF. A simple, multidimensional approach to high-throughput discovery of catalytic reactions. Science. 2011;333:1423–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xu N, Tsai C-L, Lee JT. Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X inactivation. Science. 2006;311:1149–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pavlov DA, Bobrov AI, Malekhonova NV, Pirogov AV, Nezhdanov AV. Self-assembled nanocrystals discovered in Chelyabinsk meteorite. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4280.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Reeder L. Guide to Green Building Rating Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Sammes N, editor. Fuel Cell Technology: Reaching Towards Commercialization. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Baptista J, Morais R, Valente A, Soares S, Bulas-Cruz J, Reis MJCS. A Software Tool for Harmonic Distortion Simulation Caused by Non-linear Household Loads. In: Corchado E, Novais P, Analide C, Sedano J, editors. Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, 5th International Workshop (SOCO 2010). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 31–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rheumatology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Biohybrid Robots Built From Living Tissue Start To Take Shape [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Protest of NASA RFP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 May. Report No.: B-177184.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Foster RL. The Perceptions of Language Minority Parents Regarding Informed Consent in the Special Education Process [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow L. Stony Brook Medical Center Names Chief Executive. New York Times. 2006 Dec 3;14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRheumatology and Therapy
AbbreviationRheumatol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2198-6576
ISSN (online)2198-6584

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