How to format your references using the Rheumatology and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rheumatology and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cavin L. Paleontology. On giant filter feeders. Science. 2010;327:968–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hsieh J, Schneider JW. Neuroscience. Neural stem cells, excited. Science. 2013;339:1534–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nishimura EK, Granter SR, Fisher DE. Mechanisms of hair graying: incomplete melanocyte stem cell maintenance in the niche. Science. 2005;307:720–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xu Z, Wei W, Gagneur J, Perocchi F, Clauder-Münster S, Camblong J, et al. Bidirectional promoters generate pervasive transcription in yeast. Nature. 2009;457:1033–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Medhurst D. A Brief and Practical Guide to EU Law. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Angelos P, editor. Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care Second Edition. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mishra PK, Siddiqui MW, Sahay S. Polyamines. In: Siddiqui MW, Ayala Zavala JF, Hwang C-A (andy), editors. Postharvest Management Approaches for Maintaining Quality of Fresh Produce. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 69–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rheumatology and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Researchers Discover Enormous Ancient Crocodile That Walked Upright [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Heroin Hotline. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Sep. Report No.: B-176833.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garcia-Benitez C. Support program to facilitate achievement for emancipated foster youth to succeed in college [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Indomitable Russell Values One Accolade Above the Rest. New York Times. 2011 Feb 13;SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRheumatology and Therapy
AbbreviationRheumatol. Ther.
ISSN (print)2198-6576
ISSN (online)2198-6584

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