How to format your references using the International Journal of Dharma Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dharma Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp, Martin. 2002. Science in culture: peas without pictures--Gregor Mendel and the mathematical birth of modern genetics. Nature 417: 490.
A journal article with 2 authors
Subang, M. C., and P. M. Richardson. 2009. Neuroscience. Nuclear power for axonal growth. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 238–239.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C. G., J. A. Power, and R. S. Punongbayan. 2002. Pinatubo eruption. “To make grow.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 1241–1242.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hay, Simon I., Jonathan Cox, David J. Rogers, Sarah E. Randolph, David I. Stern, G. Dennis Shanks, Monica F. Myers, and Robert W. Snow. 2002. Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature 415: 905–909.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Likhtenshtein, Gertz. 2012. Solar Energy Conversion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Pandey, Jitendra K., Hitoshi Takagi, Antonio Norio Nakagaito, and Hyun-Joong Kim, ed. 2015. Handbook of Polymer Nanocomposites. Processing, Performance and Application: Volume C: Polymer Nanocomposites of Cellulose Nanoparticles. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vilanova, Ramon, Víctor M. Alfaro, and Orlando Arrieta. 2012. Robustness in PID Control. In PID Control in the Third Millennium: Lessons Learned and New Approaches, ed. Ramon Vilanova and Antonio Visioli, 113–145. Advances in Industrial Control. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dharma Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Jurassic World Reviewed By A Dinosaur Expert: It Isn’t Faithful To Science, But So What? IFLScience. IFLScience. June 15.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Hazardous Materials Transportation: Better Guidance and Planning Could Enhance DOT’s Explosives Classification Oversight. GAO-16-715. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, Sarah R. 2015. Using Self-Monitoring and Goal Setting to Increase Swimming in Adults. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. Maggot to Blowfly: Ready for Its Close-Up. New York Times, January 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp 2002; Subang and Richardson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Subang and Richardson 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Hay et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dharma Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Dharma Stud.
ISSN (online)2196-8802

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