How to format your references using the International Journal of Dharma Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dharma Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Milani, Andrea. 2003. Astronomy. Extraterrestrial material--virtual or real hazards? Science (New York, N.Y.) 300: 1882–1883.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lynd, Lee R., and Jeremy Woods. 2011. Perspective: A new hope for Africa. Nature 474: S20-1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bowler, Chris, David M. Karl, and Rita R. Colwell. 2009. Microbial oceanography in a sea of opportunity. Nature 459: 180–184.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shendure, Jay, Gregory J. Porreca, Nikos B. Reppas, Xiaoxia Lin, John P. McCutcheon, Abraham M. Rosenbaum, Michael D. Wang, Kun Zhang, Robi D. Mitra, and George M. Church. 2005. Accurate multiplex polony sequencing of an evolved bacterial genome. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 1728–1732.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sears, Richard W., and Kathleen M. Chard. 2016. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Perna, Cira, and Marilena Sibillo, ed. 2008. Mathematical and Statistical Methods in Insurance and Finance. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Owen, Jeb P., and Dana M. Hawley. 2014. Host-Parasite Interactions. In Eco-immunology: Evolutive Aspects and Future Perspectives, ed. Davide Malagoli and Enzo Ottaviani, 73–92. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dharma Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Windy Weather Discovered in Young Planetary System. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 22.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. Battlefield Automation: Status of the Army Command and Control System Program. NSIAD-86-184FS. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers, Jonathan. 2009. Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. A Prickly Mason-Dixon Line in the Village. New York Times, November 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Milani 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Milani 2003; Lynd and Woods 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lynd and Woods 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shendure et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dharma Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Dharma Stud.
ISSN (online)2196-8802

Other styles