How to format your references using the International Journal of Dharma Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dharma Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, Neil. 2015. Mobile data: Made to measure. Nature 527: S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaspars, Marcel, and Greg Challis. 2014. Microbiology: a talented genus. Nature 506: 38–39.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sale, Julian E., Ketan J. Patel, and Facundo D. Batista. 2013. Retrospective. Michael Neuberger (1953-2013). Science (New York, N.Y.) 342: 1335.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bocquet, Nicolas, Hugues Nury, Marc Baaden, Chantal Le Poupon, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Marc Delarue, and Pierre-Jean Corringer. 2009. X-ray structure of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel in an apparently open conformation. Nature 457: 111–114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stoute, Kees. 2014. Help, I’m Rich! Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hu, Zi-Min, and Ceridwen Fraser, ed. 2016. Seaweed Phylogeography: Adaptation and Evolution of Seaweeds under Environmental Change. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Trotter, Griffin. 2012. Why the West Spurns Medical Rituals. In Ritual and the Moral Life: Reclaiming the Tradition, ed. David Solomon, Ruiping Fan, and Ping-Cheung Lo, 75–86. Philosophical Studies in Contemporary Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dharma Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Four Fennec Foxes Born At The Living Desert Zoo. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 9.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Training America’s Labor Force: Potential, Progress, and Problems of Vocational Education. B-164031(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, Benjamin. 2010. From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism. Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben, and Anne Barnard. 2016. In the Middle East, Another Conflict: What to Make of the Election of Trump. New York Times, November 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jaspars and Challis 2014; Savage 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jaspars and Challis 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bocquet et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dharma Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Dharma Stud.
ISSN (online)2196-8802

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