How to format your references using the International Journal of Dharma Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Dharma Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnston, Laura A. 2009. Competitive interactions between cells: death, growth, and geography. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 1679–1682.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scholes, R. J., and R. Biggs. 2005. A biodiversity intactness index. Nature 434: 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
De Pontieu, Bart, Robert Erdélyi, and Stewart P. James. 2004. Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows. Nature 430: 536–539.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, L. L., P. Zhang, Z. J. Zhang, and Z. F. Zhang. 2014. Intrinsically higher fatigue cracking resistance of the penetrable and movable incoherent twin boundary. Scientific reports 4: 3744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jakubith, Manuel. 1998. Grundoperationen und chemische Reaktionstechnik. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Andersen, Monica Levy, and Sergio Tufik, ed. 2016. Rodent Model as Tools in Ethical Biomedical Research. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavlova, Margarita. 2009. Technology Education and ESD. In Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable Development: Empowering Individuals for the Future, ed. Margarita Pavlova, 67–86. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Dharma Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. Hawking Radiation Recreated In A Laboratory. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 14.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Education Programs: Major Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education, School-to-Work, and Youth Employment Programs. HEHS-97-212R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cinquemani, Shana. 2017. Fostering New Spaces: Challenging Dominant Constructions of Power and Knowledge in Early Childhood Art Education. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brennan, Thomas James. 2017. Why Pot, Not Pills, Works for My T.B.I. New York Times, September 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnston 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Scholes and Biggs 2005; Johnston 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scholes and Biggs 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Dharma Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Dharma Stud.
ISSN (online)2196-8802

Other styles