How to format your references using the International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brookfield, J. F. (2001). Predicting the future. Nature, 411(6841), 999.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loreau, M., & Hector, A. (2001). Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature, 412(6842), 72–76.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayes, M., Scarlata, C., & Siana, B. (2011). Central powering of the largest Lyman-α nebula is revealed by polarized radiation. Nature, 476(7360), 304–307.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jo, Y., Jung, K., Kim, J., Woo, H., Han, J., Kim, H., … Im, H. (2014). Resistance switching mode transformation in SrRuO3/Cr-doped SrZrO3/Pt frameworks via a thermally activated Ti out-diffusion process. Scientific Reports, 4, 7354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stuart, B. (2012). Forensic Analytical Techniques: Stuart/Forensic Analytical Techniques. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Popovich, V., Claramunt, C., Schrenk, M., Korolenko, K., & Gensel, J. (Eds.). (2015). Information Fusion and Geographic Information Systems (IF&GIS’ 2015): Deep Virtualization for Mobile GIS. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, H., Gero, J. S., & Yen, C.-C. (2014). Exploring Designing Styles Using a Problem–Solution Division. In J. S. Gero (Ed.), Design Computing and Cognition ’12 (pp. 79–94). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, October 31). Five Reasons Bats Really Are Scary, and One Why They Aren’t. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access (No. GAO-14-262). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conlin, L. D. (2012). Building shared understandings in introductory physics tutorials through risk, repair, conflict & comedy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., Hale, M., Genzlinger, N., & Lyons, M. (2016, December 28). An Hour, or Less, That Stood Out. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brookfield, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Brookfield, 2001; Loreau & Hector, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Loreau & Hector, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Hayes, Scarlata, & Siana, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation
ISSN (print)2165-0349
ISSN (online)2165-0357

Other styles