How to format your references using the Economic Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clausen, J.: Man, machine and in between. Nature. 457, 1080–1081 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
di Bernardo, D., Murray, A.: Explaining the T-wave shape in the ECG. Nature. 403, 40 (2000)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gandy, S., Naslund, J., Nordstedt, C.: Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular consequences of presenilin-1 mutation. Nature. 411, 654–656 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Canales, J.P., Nedimović, M.R., Kent, G.M., Carbotte, S.M., Detrick, R.S.: Seismic reflection images of a near-axis melt sill within the lower crust at the Juan de Fuca ridge. Nature. 460, 89–93 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linacre, A.M.T., Tobe, S.S.: Wildlife DNA Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK (2013)
An edited book
Oral, A.Y., Bahsi, Z.B., Ozer, M. eds: International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013): Proceedings, Antalya, Turkey, 9-12 October 2013. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Kwok-bun, C., Wai-wan, C.: Social Strain and the Adaptive Behavior of Hong Kong Return Migrants. In: Plüss, C. and Chan, K.-B. (eds.) Living Intersections: Transnational Migrant Identifications in Asia. pp. 73–99. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Theory.

Blog post
Davis, J.: A British Man May Have Been Cured Of HIV,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Health Information Technology: CMS Took Steps to Improve Its Beneficiary Eligibility Verification System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2012)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amezcua, D.: Increasing academic success for foster youth: Educational workshops and resource guides: A grant proposal, (2016)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, J.: Donkeys: The Facts, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clausen 2009).
This sentence cites two references (di Bernardo and Murray 2000; Clausen 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (di Bernardo and Murray 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Canales et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Theory
AbbreviationEcon. Theory
ISSN (print)0938-2259
ISSN (online)1432-0479
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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