How to format your references using the Economic Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cho, A.: Computer science. Quantum or not, controversial computer yields no speedup. Science. 344, 1330–1331 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Levy-Lahad, E., Plon, S.E.: Cancer. A risky business--assessing breast cancer risk. Science. 302, 574–575 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Peelen, M.V., Fei-Fei, L., Kastner, S.: Neural mechanisms of rapid natural scene categorization in human visual cortex. Nature. 460, 94–97 (2009)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuyama, E., Kondo, T., Oigawa, H., Guo, D., Nemoto, S., Nakamura, J.: Principles and application of heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy. Sci. Rep. 4, 6711 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cayoun, B.A.: Mindfulness-integrated CBT for Well-being and Personal Growth. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Verhelst, M.: Energy Scalable Radio Design: for Pulsed UWB Communication and Ranging. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Burg, M.M.: Stress psicologico e ischemia. In: Parati, G. and Compare, A. (eds.) Mente e cuore: Clinica psicologica della malattia cardiaca. pp. 77–90. Springer, Milano (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Theory.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Baby Frogs Hatch In A Hurry When Snakes Attack,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Vulnerabilities in the Stafford Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carver, A.: From under the blanket, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.: Clinton Chats With Reagan, Then Heads Out to the Mall, (1992)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cho 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cho 2014; Levy-Lahad and Plon 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levy-Lahad and Plon 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuyama et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Theory
AbbreviationEcon. Theory
ISSN (print)0938-2259
ISSN (online)1432-0479
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles