How to format your references using the Economic Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basu, P.: Vaccines on trial. Nature. 436, 484 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Olszewski, T.D., Erwin, D.H.: Dynamic response of Permian brachiopod communities to long-term environmental change. Nature. 428, 738–741 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Taneike, M., Abe, F., Sawada, K.: Creep-strengthening of steel at high temperatures using nano-sized carbonitride dispersions. Nature. 424, 294–296 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Catteruccia, F., Nolan, T., Loukeris, T.G., Blass, C., Savakis, C., Kafatos, F.C., Crisanti, A.: Stable germline transformation of the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Nature. 405, 959–962 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Obayya, S., Hameed, M.F.O., Areed, N.F.F.: Computational Liquid Crystal Photonics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2016)
An edited book
Richet, X., Delteil, V., Dieuaide, P. eds: Strategies of Multinational Corporations and Social Regulations: European and Asian Perspectives. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Snow, E.L., Allen, L.K., McNamara, D.S.: The Dynamical Analysis of Log Data Within Educational Games. In: Loh, C.S., Sheng, Y., and Ifenthaler, D. (eds.) Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement. pp. 81–100. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Insecticide-Drenched Nets Could Have Encouraged The Emergence Of Resistant Hybrid “Super” Mosquitoes,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit: Information on the Federal Role in Funding the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krutsinger, R.: Evaluation of Grassland Restoration Success in Illinois Using Indicators of Ecosystem Function, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B.: Roll Over, Beyoncé: Chuck Berry’s Surprise, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basu 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Basu 2005; Olszewski and Erwin 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olszewski and Erwin 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Catteruccia et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Theory
AbbreviationEcon. Theory
ISSN (print)0938-2259
ISSN (online)1432-0479
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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