How to format your references using the Economic Theory citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Theory. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S.: Skin colour: no hiding in the dark. Nature. 515, S121-3 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
Virgin, H.W., Walker, B.D.: Immunology and the elusive AIDS vaccine. Nature. 464, 224–231 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Alanyali, M., Moat, H.S., Preis, T.: Quantifying the relationship between financial news and the stock market. Sci. Rep. 3, 3578 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Long, T.C., Errami, M., George, A.C., Sun, Z., Garner, H.R.: Scientific integrity. Responding to possible plagiarism. Science. 323, 1293–1294 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burwick, F.: Romanticism. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2015)
An edited book
Khan Mohammad Beigi, P.: Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician’s Guide. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Anderson, I.M., Arnone, D.: Medications. In: Anderson, I.M. (ed.) Handbook of Depression. pp. 45–58. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Theory.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Our Oceans Give New Insights On Elements Made In Supernovae,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Continuing Professional Education Study: Budget Analysts in the Federal Government, GS-560 Series. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vento, K.A.: The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Subjective Well-Being of Collegiate Athletes, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Benanav, M.: A Way of Life, Fading Away, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gupta 2014; Virgin and Walker 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Virgin and Walker 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Long et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Theory
AbbreviationEcon. Theory
ISSN (print)0938-2259
ISSN (online)1432-0479
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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