How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gwynne P (2013) Technology: Mobility machines. Nature 503(7475): S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaidos EJ and Nimmo F (2000) Tectonics and water on Europa. Nature 405(6787): 637.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alby K, Schaefer D and Bennett RJ (2009) Homothallic and heterothallic mating in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Nature 460(7257): 890–893.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Watts JM, Dang KK, Gorelick RJ, et al. (2009) Architecture and secondary structure of an entire HIV-1 RNA genome. Nature 460(7256): 711–716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura Y, Mallik A and Matsuo N (2016) MOS Devices for Low-Voltage and Low-Energy Applications. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Szabó PG (2007) New Approaches to Circle Packing in a Square: With Program Codes (eds MC Markót, T Csendes, E Specht, et al.). Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Knight J (2014) Is Internationalisation of Higher Education Having an Identity Crisis? In: Maldonado-Maldonado A and Bassett RM (eds) The Forefront of International Higher Education: A Festschrift in Honor of Philip G. Altbach. Higher Education Dynamics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 75–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Wiring of Autistic Brains Shown To Be Highly Individualized. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Fiscal Year 2007 Performance Plans. GAO-07-146SP, 1 October. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moore DL (2012) The Challenge Program: A quantitative analysis of strategies designed to eliminate the achievement gap. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J (2017) ‘The Show That I Was Born to Do’. New York Times, 22 September.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gwynne, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Gaidos and Nimmo, 2000; Gwynne, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gaidos and Nimmo, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Watts et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

Other styles