How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hampshire V (2000) Poorly conducted (or reported) animal tests put humans at risk. Nature 407(6805): 671.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long P and Corfas G (2014) Neuroscience. To learn is to myelinate. Science (New York, N.Y.) 346(6207): 298–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li X, Yang Y and Ashwell JD (2002) TNF-RII and c-IAP1 mediate ubiquitination and degradation of TRAF2. Nature 416(6878): 345–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
de Anda FC, Pollarolo G, Da Silva JS, et al. (2005) Centrosome localization determines neuronal polarity. Nature 436(7051): 704–708.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee YS (2011) Self-Assembly and Nanotechnology Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Krogstie J, Mouratidis H and Su J (eds) (2016) Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops: CAiSE 2016 International Workshops, Ljubljana, Slovenia, June 13-17, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Aronow ME and Singh AD (2014) Ocular Adnexal Lymphoma: Clinical Features and Diagnostic Evaluation. In: Singh AD (ed.) Ocular and Adnexal Lymphoma. Essentials in Ophthalmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 57–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Webcast Celebrates Two Years of Voyager’s Interstellar Space Travel. IFLScience. Available at:’s-interstellar-space-travel/ (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) Student Loan Marketing Association’s Loan Consolidation Program. 121459, 25 May. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaker G (2008) Off the track: The full-time nontenure -track faculty experience in English. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rubin JP (2017) 59 Missiles Don’t Equal a Foreign Policy. New York Times, 8 April.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hampshire, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Hampshire, 2000; Long and Corfas, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long and Corfas, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (de Anda et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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