How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leggett AJ (2008) Quantum liquids. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319(5867): 1203–1205.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santner A and Estelle M (2009) Recent advances and emerging trends in plant hormone signalling. Nature 459(7250): 1071–1078.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tynan CT, DeMaster DP and Peterson WT (2001) Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science (New York, N.Y.) 294(5548): 1894.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aathavan K, Politzer AT, Kaplan A, et al. (2009) Substrate interactions and promiscuity in a viral DNA packaging motor. Nature 461(7264): 669–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lastovetsky A (2003) Parallel Computing on Heterogeneous Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Islam MS (ed.) (2015) Islets of Langerhans. 2nd ed. 2015. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Semisalova AS, Orlov A, Smekhova A, et al. (2016) Above Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Dilute Magnetic Oxide Semiconductors. In: Zhukov A (ed.) Novel Functional Magnetic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications. Springer Series in Materials Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 187–219.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) The World’s Oldest Cave Paintings Made From Dots Found In France. IFLScience. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Repair Stations Needs Improvement. RCED-98-21, 24 October. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra A (2014) Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley G (2016) Death of a Red Carpet Reporter. New York Times, 27 December.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leggett, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Leggett, 2008; Santner and Estelle, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santner and Estelle, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Aathavan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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