How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dresser R (2012) Research ethics. Aligning regulations and ethics in human research. Science (New York, N.Y.) 337(6094): 527–528.
A journal article with 2 authors
McDonnell DP and Norris JD (2002) Connections and regulation of the human estrogen receptor. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296(5573): 1642–1644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pichersky E, Noel JP and Dudareva N (2006) Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science (New York, N.Y.) 311(5762): 808–811.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fricke C, Lee JS, Geiger-Rudolph S, et al. (2001) astray, a zebrafish roundabout homolog required for retinal axon guidance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5516): 507–510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sailor MJ (2011) Porous Silicon in Practice. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Dincer I, Colpan CO, Kizilkan O, et al. (eds) (2015) Progress in Clean Energy, Volume 2: Novel Systems and Applications. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Monti G, Greco M and Cabrini L (2016) May an “Early” Renal Replacement Therapy Improve Survival? In: Landoni G, Pisano A, Zangrillo A, et al. (eds) Reducing Mortality in Acute Kidney Injury. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 51–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Opportunity Rover Has Amnesia. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Increasing Use of Data Telecommunications Calls for Stronger Protection and Improved Economies. LCD-81-1, 12 November. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sener AC (2009) Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hernández JC (2013) From His Father’s Decline, de Blasio ‘Learned What Not to Do’. New York Times, 14 October.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dresser, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Dresser, 2012; McDonnell and Norris, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McDonnell and Norris, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Fricke et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

Other styles