How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ballschmiter K (2002) Atmospheric chemistry. A marine source for alkyl nitrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 297(5584): 1127–1128.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully R and Livingston DM (2000) In search of the tumour-suppressor functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nature 408(6811): 429–432.
A journal article with 3 authors
West S, Gromak N and Proudfoot NJ (2004) Human 5’ --> 3’ exonuclease Xrn2 promotes transcription termination at co-transcriptional cleavage sites. Nature 432(7016): 522–525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong C, Juedes AE, Temann UA, et al. (2001) ICOS co-stimulatory receptor is essential for T-cell activation and function. Nature 409(6816): 97–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beg D, Kuhlmann U, Davaine L, et al. (2012) Design of Plated Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Meusburger P, Gregory D and Suarsana L (eds) (2015) Geographies of Knowledge and Power. Knowledge and Space, Klaus Tschira Symposia. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Güell JL, Torrabadella M, Calatayud M, et al. (2006) Limbal Stem Cell Culture. In: Reinhard T and Larkin DFP (eds) Cornea and External Eye Disease. Essentials in Ophthalmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 57–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Boeing Delays Launch Of Its New Manned Spacecraft To 2018. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) SSA Computers: Long-Range Vision Needed to Guide Future Systems Modernization Efforts. IMTEC-91-44, 24 September. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaegel BM (2012) An Evaluation of the School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Check In/Check Out Behavior Education Program. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lichtblau E (2016) Health Network Charged in $1 Billion Fraud Case. New York Times, 23 July.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ballschmiter, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Ballschmiter, 2002; Scully and Livingston, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scully and Livingston, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Dong et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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