How to format your references using the International Journal of Cross Cultural Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2002) Fresh horizons South Korea. Nature 420(6916): 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekert A and Renner R (2014) The ultimate physical limits of privacy. Nature 507(7493): 443–447.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dragoi V, Rivadulla C and Sur M (2001) Foci of orientation plasticity in visual cortex. Nature 411(6833): 80–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reguera G, McCarthy KD, Mehta T, et al. (2005) Extracellular electron transfer via microbial nanowires. Nature 435(7045): 1098–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Graham AW, Kirkman NC and Paul PM (2006) Mobile Radio Network Design in the VHF and UHF Bands. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Borchers H-J (2006) Mathematical Implications of Einstein-Weyl Causality (ed. RN Sen). Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grönlund H-E, Francis C and Grimes S (2012) Location Recipes. In: Francis C and Grimes S (eds) IOS 6 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Berkeley, CA: Apress, pp. 175–216.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cross Cultural Management.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) Has Metallic Hydrogen Been Achieved For The First Time? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Mission Support Project: Analyzing User Requirements for Assignment Management Tasks. OIMC-92-3, 17 July. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller C (2012) A Multidimensional Perspective of Faculty Mentoring and Job Satisfaction during the First Year of Teaching at Lindenwood University. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Twins Deal Sends Colon To Minors. New York Times, 8 July.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Ekert and Renner, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ekert and Renner, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Reguera et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
AbbreviationInt. J. Cross Cult. Manag.
ISSN (print)1470-5958
ISSN (online)1741-2838
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Business and International Management
Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

Other styles