How to format your references using the International Journal of Early Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brakenhoff, R. H. (2011). Cancer. Another NOTCH for cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6046), 1102–1103.
A journal article with 2 authors
Glazman, L. I., & Ashoori, R. C. (2004). Physics. Coupling qubits by waves on the electron sea. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 524–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khalil, A. M., Cambier, J. C., & Shlomchik, M. J. (2012). B cell receptor signal transduction in the GC is short-circuited by high phosphatase activity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1178–1181.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Carey, J. B., Vrdoljak, A., O’Mahony, C., Hill, A. V. S., Draper, S. J., & Moore, A. C. (2014). Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route. Scientific reports, 4, 6154.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta, A. (2012). Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Parnham, M. J., Coward, K., & Baker, M. D. (Eds.). (2005). Sodium Channels, Pain, and Analgesia. Basel: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Ranathunga, S., Cranefield, S., & Purvis, M. (2012). Integrating Expectation Monitoring into BDI Agents. In L. Dennis, O. Boissier, & R. H. Bordini (Eds.), Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 9th International Workshop, ProMAS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 74–91). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Early Childhood.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 17). Exoplanet As Dense As Styrofoam Might Teach Us A Lot About Planetary Atmospheres. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the Extensible Markup Language (No. GAO-02-327). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He, H. (2006). Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mallozzi, V. M. (2017, August 22). For Their Wedding, the Moon Dimmed the Lights. New York Times, p. ST13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brakenhoff 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Brakenhoff 2011; Glazman and Ashoori 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Glazman and Ashoori 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Carey et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Early Childhood
AbbreviationInt. J. Early Child.
ISSN (print)0020-7187
ISSN (online)1878-4658
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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