How to format your references using the International Journal of Early Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A. (2010). Grassroots initiatives. Nature, 466(7304), S20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Libuda, D. E., & Winston, F. (2006). Amplification of histone genes by circular chromosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature, 443(7114), 1003–1007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Medina, J. F., Nores, W. L., & Mauk, M. D. (2002). Inhibition of climbing fibres is a signal for the extinction of conditioned eyelid responses. Nature, 416(6878), 330–333.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Khare, A., Santorelli, L. A., Strassmann, J. E., Queller, D. C., Kuspa, A., & Shaulsky, G. (2009). Cheater-resistance is not futile. Nature, 461(7266), 980–982.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli, D. (2012). Trading Options Greeks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
González, R. G., Hirsch, J. A., Lev, M. H., Schaefer, P. W., & Schwamm, L. H. (Eds.). (2011). Acute Ischemic Stroke: Imaging and Intervention (2nd ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grégoire, É., Lagniez, J.-M., & Mazure, B. (2014). A General Artificial Intelligence Approach for Skeptical Reasoning. In B. Goertzel, L. Orseau, & J. Snaider (Eds.), Artificial General Intelligence: 7th International Conference, AGI 2014, Quebec City, QC, Canada, August 1-4, 2014. Proceedings (pp. 33–42). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Early Childhood.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 27). If Earth Falls, Will Interstellar Space Travel Be Our Salvation? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). District of Columbia: Weaknesses in Personnel Records and Public Schools’ Management Information and Controls (No. T-AIMD-95-170). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker, D. (2016). Does team patient care mean better patient outcomes? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017, August 31). Hot for a Dairy Queen Sign. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Libuda and Winston 2006; Maxmen 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Libuda and Winston 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Khare et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Early Childhood
AbbreviationInt. J. Early Child.
ISSN (print)0020-7187
ISSN (online)1878-4658
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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