How to format your references using the International Journal of Early Childhood citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Early Childhood (IJEC). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dermitzakis, E. T. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. Genome literacy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6018), 689–690.
A journal article with 2 authors
King, D. A., & Thomas, S. M. (2007). Science and government. Taking science out of the box--foresight recast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5832), 1701–1702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gong, Y., Mo, C., & Fraser, S. E. (2004). Planar cell polarity signalling controls cell division orientation during zebrafish gastrulation. Nature, 430(7000), 689–693.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhou, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, Z., Luo, H., Cao, C., Chen, Z., et al. (2013). VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation. Scientific reports, 3, 3029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam, M. R., Chhetri, A. B., & Khan, M. M. (2010). The Greening of Petroleum Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Attal, S., Joye, A., & Pillet, C.-A. (Eds.). (2006). Open Quantum Systems II: The Markovian Approach (Vol. 1881). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan, C., Luo, J., Wang, W., & Zhu, B. (2012). Voronoi Diagram with Visual Restriction. In J. Snoeyink, P. Lu, K. Su, & L. Wang (Eds.), Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2012, Beijing, China, May 14-16, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 36–46). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Early Childhood.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 21). Creative Self-Destruction: The Climate Crisis And The Myth Of ‘Green’ Capitalism. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid Disruption of Essential Services (No. T-AIMD-98-117). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo, M. (2015). The development of a viable business plan: Analytics of 30 day readmission rates for hospitals and ancillary services (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, January 19). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Asylum For Blast Survivor. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dermitzakis 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Dermitzakis 2011; King and Thomas 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (King and Thomas 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Early Childhood
AbbreviationInt. J. Early Child.
ISSN (print)0020-7187
ISSN (online)1878-4658
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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