How to format your references using the Diabetology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smith N. A blast wave from the 1843 eruption of eta Carinae. Nature. 2008;455:201–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lease RO, Ehlers TA. Incision into the eastern Andean Plateau during Pliocene cooling. Science. 2013;341:774–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Meschke M, Guichard W, Pekola JP. Single-mode heat conduction by photons. Nature. 2006;444:187–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Marahatta A, Bhandary B, Jeong S-K, Kim H-R, Chae H-J. Soybean greatly reduces valproic acid plasma concentrations: a food-drug interaction study. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Uriev NB. Technology of Dispersed Systems and Materials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1. Kochergin V. Porous Semiconductors: Optical Properties and Applications. Föll H, editor. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Moll CKE, Payer S, Gulberti A, Sharrott A, Zittel S, Boelmans K, et al. STN Stimulation in General Anaesthesia: Evidence Beyond ‘Evidence-Based Medicine.’ In: Nikkhah G, Pinsker M, editors. Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. Vienna: Springer; 2013. p. 19–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetology International.

Blog post
1. Taub B. More American Grandparents Are Using Marijuana Than Ever Before [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. International Space Station (ISS) - Ongoing Assessments for Life Extension Appear to be Supported. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Apr. Report No.: GAO-11-519R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wright MW. The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Outer Space: Workout For Spacewalkers. New York Times. 2001 Oct 16;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetology International
AbbreviationDiabetol. Int.
ISSN (print)2190-1678
ISSN (online)2190-1686
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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