How to format your references using the Diabetology International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetology International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Earnshaw WC. Cell biology. Keeping survivin nimble at centromeres in mitosis. Science. 2005;310:1443–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Affolter M, Basler K. Cell biology. Cytonemes show their colors. Science. 2011;332:312–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ginsberg NS, Garner SR, Hau LV. Coherent control of optical information with matter wave dynamics. Nature. 2007;445:623–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Villegas JE, Savel’ev S, Nori F, Gonzalez EM, Anguita JV, García R, et al. A superconducting reversible rectifier that controls the motion of magnetic flux quanta. Science. 2003;302:1188–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bernheim MLC. Ciba Foundation Symposium 39 - Monoamine Oxidase and its Inhibition: Ciba/Monoamine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Amicis RD, Conti G, editors. Future Vision and Trends on Shapes, Geometry and Algebra. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Krishnaraj V, Zitoune R, Davim JP. Effects of Drill Points While Drilling at High Spindle Speed. In: Zitoune R, Davim JP, editors. Drilling of Polymer-Matrix Composites. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 55–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetology International.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why It’s Impossible To Actually Be A Vegetarian. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Questions on Administrative Costs of an Equipment Subsidy Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Jun. Report No.: GAO-05-837R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Castiglione A. Counterproductive work behaviors: The role of employee support policies, envy, and narcissism [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Clarey C. Halep Puts Up a Fight, but Williams Rolls On. New York Times. 2016 Sep 8;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetology International
AbbreviationDiabetol. Int.
ISSN (print)2190-1678
ISSN (online)2190-1686
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles