How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laursen, Lucas. 2015. “Botany: The Cultivation of Weed.” Nature 525 (7570): S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dranovsky, Alex, and E. David Leonardo. 2015. “Neuroscience: The Power of Positivity.” Nature 522 (7556): 294–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zorzi, Marco, Konstantinos Priftis, and Carlo Umiltà. 2002. “Brain Damage: Neglect Disrupts the Mental Number Line.” Nature 417 (6885): 138–139.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wu, Hai, Shane B. Kanatous, Frederick A. Thurmond, Teresa Gallardo, Eiji Isotani, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, and R. Sanders Williams. 2002. “Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Skeletal Muscle by CaMK.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 349–352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiGrado, Brian D., and Gregory A. Thorp. 2007. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dixit, Chandra K., and Ajeet Kaushik, eds. 2016. Microfluidics for Biologists: Fundamentals and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Mélin, Thierry, Mariusz Zdrojek, and David Brunel. 2010. “Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Force Microscopy as a Probe of the Electrostatic and Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes.” In Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, edited by Bharat Bhushan, 89–128. NanoScience and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “‘Intellectual Humility’ Is Surprisingly Bipartisan.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Nextgen Air Transportation System: Mechanisms for Collaboration and Technology Transfer Could Be Enhanced to More Fully Leverage Partner Agency and Industry Resources. GAO-11-604. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia-Benitez, Carol. 2010. “Support Program to Facilitate Achievement for Emancipated Foster Youth to Succeed in College.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2017. “Car Insurers Facing Rush Of Claims After Storm.” New York Times, August 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Laursen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Laursen 2015; Dranovsky and Leonardo 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dranovsky and Leonardo 2015)
  • Three authors: (Zorzi, Priftis, and Umiltà 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles