How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gurnett, Donald A. 2006. “Obituary: James A. Van Allen (1914-2006).” Nature 443 (7108): 158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Endow, S. A., and H. Higuchi. 2000. “A Mutant of the Motor Protein Kinesin That Moves in Both Directions on Microtubules.” Nature 406 (6798): 913–916.
A journal article with 3 authors
Faehnle, Christopher R., Jack Walleshauser, and Leemor Joshua-Tor. 2014. “Mechanism of Dis3l2 Substrate Recognition in the Lin28-Let-7 Pathway.” Nature 514 (7521): 252–256.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nishiyama, Tomoko, Norio Yoshizaki, Takeo Kishimoto, and Keita Ohsumi. 2007. “Transient Activation of Calcineurin Is Essential to Initiate Embryonic Development in Xenopus Laevis.” Nature 449 (7160): 341–345.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Chevalier, François, Dominique Lesselier, and Robert Staraj. 2011. Non-Standard Antennas. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hu, Zi-Min, and Ceridwen Fraser, eds. 2016. Seaweed Phylogeography: Adaptation and Evolution of Seaweeds under Environmental Change. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Rolstadås, Asbjørn, Per Willy Hetland, George Farage Jergeas, and Richard E. Westney. 2011. “Jaywalking with George.” In Risk Navigation Strategies for Major Capital Projects: Beyond the Myth of Predictability, edited by Per Willy Hetland, George Farage Jergeas, and Richard E. Westney, 55–60. Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Study Of World’s Oldest People Fails To Find Any ‘Genetic Secrets’ To Living Longer.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Acquisition of Compact and Subcompact Passenger Vehicles To Conserve Fuel. 089569. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartaula, Binayak. 2017. “Stand Level Growth and Survival Equations for Cutover Sites Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Mid-Gulf Region of Southern United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2017. “A Mythic Force of Anger, Raging in Wales.” New York Times, May 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gurnett 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gurnett 2006; Endow and Higuchi 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Endow and Higuchi 2000)
  • Three authors: (Faehnle, Walleshauser, and Joshua-Tor 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nishiyama et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles