How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baulcombe, David C. 2007. “Molecular Biology. Amplified Silencing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5809): 199–200.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts, Richard G., and Olav B. Lian. 2015. “Dating Techniques: Illuminating the Past.” Nature 520 (7548): 438–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dhara, Sajal, Eugene J. Mele, and Ritesh Agarwal. 2015. “APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-Tunable Circular Photogalvanic Effect in Silicon Nanowires.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6249): 726–729.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ando, Tatsuya, Hiroyasu Ito, Hirofumi Ohtaki, and Mitsuru Seishima. 2013. “Toll-like Receptor Agonists and Alpha-Galactosylceramide Synergistically Enhance the Production of Interferon-Gamma in Murine Splenocytes.” Scientific Reports 3: 2559.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, Danielle S. 2012. Why Plato Wrote. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Foxwell, Harry J. 2009. Pro OpenSolaris: A New Open Source OS for Linux Developers and Administrators. Edited by Christine Tran. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhidayasiri, Roongroj, and Daniel Tarsy. 2012. “Parkinson’s Disease: Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia.” In Movement Disorders: A Video Atlas: A Video Atlas, edited by Daniel Tarsy, 10–11. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The Secret of the World’s Smelliest Flower.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Manned Undersea Science and Technology Needs Focus and Direction. PSAD-77-130. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson, Breanne. 2012. “Forging a New World Nationalism: Ancient Mexico in United States Art and Visual Culture, 1933–1945.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, Linda F. 2006. “An Animal Sanctuary Is Under Pressure to Move.” New York Times, August 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baulcombe 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baulcombe 2007; Roberts and Lian 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roberts and Lian 2015)
  • Three authors: (Dhara, Mele, and Agarwal 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ando et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles