How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Errico, Alessia. 2015. “Judge by Actions, Not Words.” Nature 522 (7557): 393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Langer, Robert, and David A. Tirrell. 2004. “Designing Materials for Biology and Medicine.” Nature 428 (6982): 487–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montzka, S. A., E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler. 2011. “Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change.” Nature 476 (7358): 43–50.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boysen, Dane A., Tetsuya Uda, Calum R. I. Chisholm, and Sossina M. Haile. 2004. “High-Performance Solid Acid Fuel Cells through Humidity Stabilization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5654): 68–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stockinger, Peter. 2013. Audiovisual Archives. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sigalov, Alexander B., ed. 2008. Multichain Immune Recognition Receptor Signaling: From Spatiotemporal Organization to Human Disease. Vol. 640. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ries, Sebastian, and Andreas Heinemann. 2008. “Analyzing the Robustness of CertainTrust.” In Trust Management II: Proceedings of IFIPTM 2008: Joint ITrust and PST Conferences on Privacy, Trust Management and Security, June 18-20, 2008, Trondheim, Norway, edited by Yücel Karabulut, John Mitchell, Peter Herrmann, and Christian Damsgaard Jensen, 51–67. IFIP – The International Federation for Information Processing. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2017. “Attractive Scientists Are Deemed More Interesting But Less Competent By The Public.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Homeland Security: Progress Continues, but Challenges Remain on Department’s Management of Information Technology. GAO-06-598T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fetterolf-Klein, Shelley. 2015. “Teacher Leadership Practices, Supports and Challenges in Implementation of the Common Core High School Math Standards.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2015. “‘Bond, James Bond,’ Through the Years.” New York Times, November 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Errico 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Errico 2015; Langer and Tirrell 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Langer and Tirrell 2004)
  • Three authors: (Montzka, Dlugokencky, and Butler 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boysen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles