How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez, Michael. 2007. “Follow the Money.” Nature 446 (7132): 230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pelkmans, Lucas, and Marino Zerial. 2005. “Kinase-Regulated Quantal Assemblies and Kiss-and-Run Recycling of Caveolae.” Nature 436 (7047): 128–133.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara, Allen K., Peter E. van Keken, and Shun-Ichiro Karato. 2002. “Development of Anisotropic Structure in the Earth’s Lower Mantle by Solid-State Convection.” Nature 416 (6878): 310–314.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Carpena, Pedro, Pedro Bernaola-Galván, Plamen Ch Ivanov, and H. Eugene Stanley. 2002. “Metal-Insulator Transition in Chains with Correlated Disorder.” Nature 418 (6901): 955–959.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balmori, Diana. 2014. Drawing and Reinventing Landscape. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang, Xianmin, Honghai Liu, Zhong Chen, and Nianfeng Wang, eds. 2014. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 7th International Conference, ICIRA 2014, Guangzhou, China, December 17-20, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 8917. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Solnick, Jay V., Jani L. O’rourke, Peter Vandamme, and Adrian Lee. 2006. “The Genus Helicobacter.” In The Prokaryotes: Volume 7: Proteobacteria: Delta, Epsilon Subclass, edited by Martin Dworkin, Stanley Falkow, Eugene Rosenberg, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, and Erko Stackebrandt, 139–177. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “Watch This Amazing Self-Healing Material That Could Instantly Repair Damaged Spacecraft.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1972. Drug Abuse Control Program Activities in Vietnam. B-164031(2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fulton, Erika. 2010. “Differential Effects of Nicotine on Prospective Memory, Sustained Attention, and Working Memory.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2015. “Stepping Alone, Together.” New York Times, September 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alvarez 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Alvarez 2007; Pelkmans and Zerial 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pelkmans and Zerial 2005)
  • Three authors: (McNamara, van Keken, and Karato 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Carpena et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles