How to format your references using the European Journal of Special Needs Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Special Needs Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Triendl, Robert. 2002. “Breaking down Biological Borders.” Nature 418 (6899): 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
West, S. A., and A. D. Peters. 2000. “Paying for Sex Is Not Easy.” Nature 407 (6807): 962.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Jungsul, Junseong Park, and Chulhee Choi. 2014. “Identification of Phenotype Deterministic Genes Using Systemic Analysis of Transcriptional Response.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4413.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mishchenko, Michael I., Igor V. Geogdzhayev, William B. Rossow, Brian Cairns, Barbara E. Carlson, Andrew A. Lacis, Li Liu, and Larry D. Travis. 2007. “Long-Term Satellite Record Reveals Likely Recent Aerosol Trend.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5818): 1543.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme, Roger. 2012. Flows and Chemical Reactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kumar Kundu, Malay, Durga Prasad Mohapatra, Amit Konar, and Aruna Chakraborty, eds. 2014. Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics- Volume 2: Wireless Networks and Security Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advanced Computing, Networking and Informatics (ICACNI-2014). Vol. 28. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Goldspink, Chris. 2014. “Social Norms from the Perspective of Embodied Cognition.” In The Complexity of Social Norms, edited by Maria Xenitidou and Bruce Edmonds, 55–79. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Special Needs Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Plants Can Actually Take Care Of Their Offspring – Here’s How.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Customs Service Modernization: Actions Initiated to Correct ACE Management and Technical Weaknesses. T-AIMD-99-186. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Creason, Paul Joseph. 2015. “The Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes at a California Community College: Insight from Faculty in a Single Department.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, Susan. 2013. “At Hopper’s Home, Legally This Time.” New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Triendl 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Triendl 2002; West and Peters 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Peters 2000)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Park, and Choi 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mishchenko et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
AbbreviationEur. J. Spec. Needs Educ.
ISSN (print)0885-6257
ISSN (online)1469-591X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

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