How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garrett, B. C. (2004). Chemistry. Ions at the air/water interface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5661), 1146–1147.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jaffe, A. B., & Hall, A. (2003). Cell biology. Smurfing at the leading edge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5651), 1690–1691.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaan, H. Y. K., Hackney, D. D., & Kozielski, F. (2011). The structure of the kinesin-1 motor-tail complex reveals the mechanism of autoinhibition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6044), 883–885.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tang, W., Lu, Y., Tian, Q.-Y., Zhang, Y., Guo, F.-J., Liu, G.-Y., Syed, N. M., Lai, Y., Lin, E. A., Kong, L., Su, J., Yin, F., Ding, A.-H., Zanin-Zhorov, A., Dustin, M. L., Tao, J., Craft, J., Yin, Z., Feng, J. Q., … Liu, C.-J. (2011). The growth factor progranulin binds to TNF receptors and is therapeutic against inflammatory arthritis in mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6028), 478–484.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pachamanova, D. A., & Fabozzi, F. J. (2010). Simulation and Optimization in Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meulen, R. T., Biller-Andorno, N., Lenk, C., & Lie, R. K. (Eds.). (2005). Evidence-based Practice in Medicine and Health Care: A Discussion of the Ethical Issues. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ligtvoet, A., & Herder, P. M. (2012). Simulation and Gaming for Understanding the Complexity of Cooperation in Industrial Networks. In O. Hammami, D. Krob, & J.-L. Voirin (Eds.), Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management CSDM 2011 (pp. 81–92). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 20). Using Monkeys For Research Is Justified – It’s Giving Us Treatments That Would Be Otherwise Impossible. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2012). Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act (GAO-12-1009T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kraka, E. K. (2012). Assessment of herbicides for control of non-native species: Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis), and tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, August 13). Snug as a Dog in a Baby Carrier Is the Latest Refrain for Pet Lovers. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garrett, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Garrett, 2004; Jaffe & Hall, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jaffe & Hall, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Kaan et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tang et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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