How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marston, G. (2012). Chemistry. An elusive intermediate gets caught. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6065), 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wehr, M., & Zador, A. M. (2003). Balanced inhibition underlies tuning and sharpens spike timing in auditory cortex. Nature, 426(6965), 442–446.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiserer, A., Ritter, S., & Rempe, G. (2013). Nondestructive detection of an optical photon. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6164), 1349–1351.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Humpherys, D., Eggan, K., Akutsu, H., Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., 3rd, Biniszkiewicz, D., Yanagimachi, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2001). Epigenetic instability in ES cells and cloned mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 95–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdul-Rahman, Y. (2014). The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jakovác, A. (2016). Resummation and Renormalization in Effective Theories of Particle Physics (A. Patkós, Ed.; 1st ed. 2016, Vol. 912). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Marien, H., Steyaert, M., & Heremans, P. (2013). A/D Conversion. In M. Steyaert & P. Heremans (Eds.), Analog Organic Electronics: Building Blocks for Organic Smart Sensor Systems on Foil (pp. 93–109). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 10). Trees Are Much Better At Creating Clouds And Cooling The Climate Than We Thought. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Human Services: Sustained and Coordinated Efforts Could Facilitate Data Sharing While Protecting Privacy (GAO-13-106). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, A. P. (2008). An efficient algorithm for calculating fluctuation field and simulating the thermal magnetic aftereffect [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2012, September 4). How Plan to Help City Pay Pensions Backfired. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marston, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Marston, 2012; Wehr & Zador, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wehr & Zador, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Reiserer et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Humpherys et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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