How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Taylor, T. (2001). Explanatory tyranny. Nature, 411(6836), 419.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bongaarts, J., & Over, M. (2010). Public health. Global HIV/AIDS policy in transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5984), 1359–1360.
A journal article with 3 authors
Copley, A., Avouac, J.-P., & Wernicke, B. P. (2011). Evidence for mechanical coupling and strong Indian lower crust beneath southern Tibet. Nature, 472(7341), 79–81.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yuan, Z.-L., Guan, Y.-J., Chatterjee, D., & Chin, Y. E. (2005). Stat3 dimerization regulated by reversible acetylation of a single lysine residue. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5707), 269–273.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hamdan, M., & Righetti, P. G. (2005). Proteomics Today. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eggermont, J. J., Zeng, F.-G., Popper, A. N., & Fay, R. R. (Eds.). (2012). Tinnitus (Vol. 44). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Salati, E., Dourojeanni, M., Mundim, A., Sampaio, G., & Lovejoy, T. (2012). The Brazilian Amazon. In J. A. Hilty, C. C. Chester, & M. S. Cross (Eds.), Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action (pp. 45–55). Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 27). Jade Pendant’s Inscription Reveals New Aspect To Mayan Civilization. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Mass Transit: FTA’s Projections Could Better Reflect State and Local Needs (T-RCED-93-17). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer, D. (2012). Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, September 6). ‘Mean Girls’ Musical Is Broadway Bound. New York Times, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Taylor, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bongaarts & Over, 2010; Taylor, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bongaarts & Over, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Copley et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yuan et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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