How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fedoroff, N. V. (2003). Agriculture. Prehistoric GM corn. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1158–1159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Youngs, H., & Somerville, C. (2014). Plant science. Best practices for biofuels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6188), 1095–1096.
A journal article with 3 authors
McGinty, R. K., Henrici, R. C., & Tan, S. (2014). Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome. Nature, 514(7524), 591–596.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Warren, W. S., Jenista, E., Branca, R. T., & Chen, X. (2009). Increasing hyperpolarized spin lifetimes through true singlet eigenstates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5922), 1711–1714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, K. H., & Barnes, R. (2010). VoIP Emergency Calling. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Saka, M. (Ed.). (2011). Metallic Micro and Nano Materials: Fabrication with Atomic Diffusion. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gordis, J. H. (2014). Optimal Selection of Artificial Boundary Conditions for Model Update and Damage Detection – Part 2: Experiment. In R. Allemang, J. De Clerck, C. Niezrecki, & A. Wicks (Eds.), Topics in Modal Analysis, Volume 7: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2013 (pp. 37–60). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, June 27). Enormous Helium Discovery Could End Shortage. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Difficulties of the Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program and Its Management Problems (B-130515). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saifman, H. P. (2017). Millennial Nurse Manager Perspectives on Their Leadership Roles in the Hospital Setting: A Phenomenological Inquiry [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, June 29). Backstage With Van Halen. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fedoroff, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fedoroff, 2003; Youngs & Somerville, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Youngs & Somerville, 2014)
  • Three authors: (McGinty et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Warren et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

Other styles