How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Sizing up the odds. Nature, 434(7033), 675.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Q., & Bachtrog, D. (2012). Sex-specific adaptation drives early sex chromosome evolution in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6092), 341–345.
A journal article with 3 authors
Della Negra, M., Jenni, P., & Virdee, T. S. (2012). Journey in the search for the Higgs boson: the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6114), 1560–1568.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marlow, J. R., Lange, C. B., Wefer, G., & Rosell-Mele, A. (2000). Upwelling intensification as part of the Pliocene-Pleistocene climate transition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5500), 2288–2291.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zink, M. (2005). Scalable Video on Demand. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Vivanco, J. M., & Weir, T. (Eds.). (2011). Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach (First, Vol. 8). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tomiyama, Y., & Yoshinaga, K. (2016). Kinetic Analysis for Cardiac PET. In Y. Kuge, T. Shiga, & N. Tamaki (Eds.), Perspectives on Nuclear Medicine for Molecular Diagnosis and Integrated Therapy (pp. 67–75). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, June 28). Borneo’s “Deep Skull” Rewrites History Of Human Evolution. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Technology Transfer: Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (No. RCED-89-154). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, S. X. (2009). Theoretical models of olfactory discrimination in Drosophila (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007, December 2). One Stop for Homey or Haute. New York Times, p. 14NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2005; Zhou & Bachtrog, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhou & Bachtrog, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Della Negra, Jenni, & Virdee, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Marlow, Lange, Wefer, & Rosell-Mele, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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