How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goodby, J. W. (2004). Obituary: Sivaramakrishna Chandrasekhar (1930-2004). Nature, 428(6986), 906.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla, C., & Tang, Y. (2005). Chemistry. A new route to designer antibiotics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5720), 367–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morris, R. J., Lewis, O. T., & Godfray, H. C. J. (2004). Experimental evidence for apparent competition in a tropical forest food web. Nature, 428(6980), 310–313.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kessel, R., Schmidt, M. W., Ulmer, P., & Pettke, T. (2005). Trace element signature of subduction-zone fluids, melts and supercritical liquids at 120-180 km depth. Nature, 437(7059), 724–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biech, E. (2015). 101 More Ways to Make Training Active. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wu, Y. (Ed.). (2012). Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (Vol. 121). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lamaury, J., & Gouttefarde, M. (2013). A Tension Distribution Method with Improved Computational Efficiency. In T. Bruckmann & A. Pott (Eds.), Cable-Driven Parallel Robots (pp. 71–85). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, February 20). New Battery Technologies Developed That Don’t Need Rare Materials. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Responsibilities, Actions, and Coordination of Federal Agencies in International Telecommunications Services (CED-77-132). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Molina-Gutierrez, E. (2009). Keys to my home: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2016, March 27). Art in Plain English. New York Times, WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goodby, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Goodby, 2004; Khosla & Tang, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khosla & Tang, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Morris et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kessel et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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