How to format your references using the International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hynek, B. M. (2004). Implications for hydrologic processes on Mars from extensive bedrock outcrops throughout Terra Meridiani. Nature, 431(7005), 156–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clapier, C. R., & Cairns, B. R. (2012). Regulation of ISWI involves inhibitory modules antagonized by nucleosomal epitopes. Nature, 492(7428), 280–284.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whittington, A. G., Hofmeister, A. M., & Nabelek, P. I. (2009). Temperature-dependent thermal diffusivity of the Earth’s crust and implications for magmatism. Nature, 458(7236), 319–321.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Van de Velde, W., Zehirov, G., Szatmari, A., Debreczeny, M., Ishihara, H., Kevei, Z., … Mergaert, P. (2010). Plant peptides govern terminal differentiation of bacteria in symbiosis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5969), 1122–1126.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimble, M. J. (2006). Robust Industrial Control Systems. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
González, R. G., Hirsch, J. A., Lev, M. H., Schaefer, P. W., & Schwamm, L. H. (Eds.). (2011). Acute Ischemic Stroke: Imaging and Intervention (2nd ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tagariello, G., & Radossi, P. (2008). Orthopedic Surgery in HIV-Positive Hemophiliac Patients. In H. A. Caviglia & L. P. Solimeno (Eds.), Orthopedic Surgery in Patients with Hemophilia (pp. 23–32). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 10). This Robotic Finger Looks and Flexes Just Like Your Own. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Better Information Needed for Oversight and Evaluation of Selected Elementary and Secondary Education Programs (No. PAD-78-35). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Porter, J. (2010). Closing the classroom door: Denying the political, embracing the moral (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2008, February 28). Justices Take Up Battle Over Exxon Valdez Damages. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Archibald, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Birnbaum, 2008; Bourzac, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clapier & Cairns, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Whittington, Hofmeister, & Nabelek, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice
AbbreviationInt. J. Comp. Appl. Crim. Justice
ISSN (print)0192-4036
ISSN (online)2157-6475

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