How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cottrell, G. W. (2006). Computer science. New life for neural networks. Science 313, 454–455.
A journal article with 2 authors
Czyzewski, B. K., and Wang, D.-N. (2012). Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel. Nature 483, 494–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shimizu, G. K. H., Taylor, J. M., and Kim, S. (2013). Chemistry. Proton conduction with metal-organic frameworks. Science 341, 354–355.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dolezal, P., Likic, V., Tachezy, J., and Lithgow, T. (2006). Evolution of the molecular machines for protein import into mitochondria. Science 313, 314–318.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Volpe, M. A. (2013). Rethinking Christian Identity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Kawai, T., and Cumberlidge, N. eds. (2016). A Global Overview of the Conservation of Freshwater Decapod Crustaceans. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Donovan, G. T. (2014). “Opening Proprietary Ecologies,” in Methodological Challenges When Exploring Digital Learning Spaces in Education, eds. G. B. Gudmundsdottir and K. B. Vasbø (Rotterdam: SensePublishers), 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Six Things You Can Do With Coffee – After You’ve Finished Drinking It. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1974). Review of Estimate in Prime Contract N00019-71-C-0450 With Grumman Aerospace Corporation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hung, H.-C. (2006). Allocation of Jobs and Resources to Work Centers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2015). Rhode Island Averts Pension Crisis and Higher Tax. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cottrell, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Cottrell, 2006; Czyzewski and Wang, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Czyzewski and Wang, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Dolezal et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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