How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gillespie, R. (2004). Community assembly through adaptive radiation in Hawaiian spiders. Science 303, 356–359.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sun, F., and He, S. (2014). Transformation magneto-statics and illusions for magnets. Sci. Rep. 4, 6593.
A journal article with 3 authors
Killian, N. J., Jutras, M. J., and Buffalo, E. A. (2012). A map of visual space in the primate entorhinal cortex. Nature 491, 761–764.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gao, S., Chen, D., Li, Q., Ye, J., Jiang, H., Amatore, C., et al. (2014). Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cancer cells and tumors through specific biosynthesis of silver nanoclusters. Sci. Rep. 4, 4384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bejan, A. (2016). Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mersini-Houghton, L., and Vaas, R. eds. (2012). The Arrows of Time: A Debate in Cosmology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cobb, B. R., Rumí, R., and Salmerón, A. (2005). “Modeling Conditional Distributions of Continuous Variables in Bayesian Networks,” in Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis VI: 6th International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, IDA 2005, Madrid, Spain, September 8-10, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. F. Famili, J. N. Kok, J. M. Peña, A. Siebes, and A. Feelders (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). On brown dwarfs, storms of molten iron are always forecast. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977). House of Representatives’ Amendment to the Energy Research and Development Administration’s Authorization Bill for Fiscal Year 1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Demenkoff, J. H. (2014). Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014). Baton in This Race Is the Conductor’s. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gillespie, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Gillespie, 2004; Sun and He, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sun and He, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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