How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harnett, M. M. (2006). Immunology. B cells spread and gather. Science 312, 709–710.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, L. A. J., and Hardie, D. G. (2013). Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature 493, 346–355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burkle, L. A., Marlin, J. C., and Knight, T. M. (2013). Plant-pollinator interactions over 120 years: loss of species, co-occurrence, and function. Science 339, 1611–1615.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Holland, N. D., Clague, D. A., Gordon, D. P., Gebruk, A., Pawson, D. L., and Vecchione, M. (2005). “Lophenteropneust” hypothesis refuted by collection and photos of new deep-sea hemichordates. Nature 434, 374–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kühn, V. (2006). Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kee, Y., Lee, S. J., and Phillips, R. eds. (2016). Social Factors and Community Well-Being. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zeinalipour-Yazti, D., Kalogeraki, V., Gunopulos, D., Mitra, A., Banerjee, A., and Najjar, W. (2005). “Towards In-Situ Data Storage in Sensor Databases,” in Advances in Informatics: 10th Panhellenic Conference on Informatics, PCI 2005, Volas, Greece, November 11-13, 2005. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. P. Bozanis and E. N. Houstis (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 36–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). WWF Plans To Buy Shark Fishing Licenses So No One Else Can Use Them. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). Award of Grant by Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ghafoori, H. D. (2010). Working with Muslim children and families: A training program for child welfare social workers.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). The Engineered Shoe. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harnett, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Harnett, 2006; O’Neill and Hardie, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Neill and Hardie, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Holland et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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