How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeley, T. D. (2008). Obituary: martin lindauer (1918-2008). Nature 456, 718.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burns, N. Z., and Jacobsen, E. N. (2012). Organic chemistry: catalysis in tight spaces. Nature 483, 278–279.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nygård, J., Cobden, D. H., and Lindelof, P. E. (2000). Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes. Nature 408, 342–346.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chichak, K. S., Cantrill, S. J., Pease, A. R., Chiu, S.-H., Cave, G. W. V., Atwood, J. L., et al. (2004). Molecular borromean rings. Science 304, 1308–1312.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Magnasco, V. (2010). Models for Bonding in Chemistry. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reitz, E. J., Scudder, S. J., and Scarry, C. M. eds. (2008). Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology. Second Edition. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Meghini, C., and Spyratos, N. (2007). “Computing Intensions of Digital Library Collections,” in Formal Concept Analysis: 5th International Conference, ICFCA 2007, Clermont-Ferrand, France, February 12-16, 2007. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. S. O. Kuznetsov and S. Schmidt (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 66–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). Is Yawning as Contagious in Bonobos as it is in Humans? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim, R. H.-J. (2017). A stylistic analysis of and performance suggestions for Robert Muczynski’s Second Piano Sonata, Opus 22.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Medina, J., Pérez-Peña, R., Schmidt, M. S., and Goodstein, L. (2015). Arms Stockpile Is Found in Home of Two Suspects. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolgin, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Basri, 2006; Jayaraman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burns and Jacobsen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Eisenmesser et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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