How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jacobson, M. Z. (2001). Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 409, 695–697.
A journal article with 2 authors
Terman, J. R., and Kolodkin, A. L. (2004). Nervy links protein kinase a to plexin-mediated semaphorin repulsion. Science 303, 1204–1207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richmond, J. E., Weimer, R. M., and Jorgensen, E. M. (2001). An open form of syntaxin bypasses the requirement for UNC-13 in vesicle priming. Nature 412, 338–341.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pfeifer, M. A., Williams, G. J., Vartanyants, I. A., Harder, R., and Robinson, I. K. (2006). Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal. Nature 442, 63–66.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abdul-Rahman, Y. (2014). The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vereecken, W. (2009). Ultra-Wideband Pulse-based Radio: Reliable Communication over a Wideband Channel. , ed. M. Steyaert Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, C. Y.-Y., Edvinsson, L., Chen, J., and Beding, T. (2013). “Beyond the 2008 Global Financial Crisis,” in National Intellectual Capital and the Financial Crisis in Brazil, Russia, India, China, Korea, and South Africa SpringerBriefs in Economics., eds. L. Edvinsson, J. Chen, and T. Beding (New York, NY: Springer), 63–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Life Could Be Possible On Sideways Exoplanet If It Has Oceans. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Aviation Security: Corrective Actions Underway, but Better Inspection Guidance Still Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gifford, S. C. (2013). (Re)making men, representing the Caribbean nation: Authorial individuation in works by Fred D’aguiar, Robert Antoni, and Marlon James.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, 1314.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jacobson, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Jacobson, 2001; Terman and Kolodkin, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Terman and Kolodkin, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Pfeifer et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Pharmacology

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