How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chan, M. H. W. (2008). Supersolidity. Science 319, 1207–1209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waterhouse, P. M., and Fusaro, A. F. (2006). Plant science. Viruses face a double defense by plant small RNAs. Science 313, 54–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oxborrow, M., Breeze, J. D., and Alford, N. M. (2012). Room-temperature solid-state maser. Nature 488, 353–356.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cao, Y., Wang, N., Tian, H., Guo, J., Wei, Y., Chen, H., et al. (2018). Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature 562, 249–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gordon, A., and Hernandez, S. (2016). The Official (ISC) 2® Guide to the SSCP 2® CBK 2®. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wiencke, C., and Bischof, K. eds. (2012). Seaweed Biology: Novel Insights into Ecophysiology, Ecology and Utilization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ayguadé, E., Beyer, J., Duran, A., Ferrer, R., Haab, G., Li, K., et al. (2010). “An Extension to Improve OpenMP Tasking Control,” in Beyond Loop Level Parallelism in OpenMP: Accelerators, Tasking and More: 6th Internationan Workshop on OpenMP, IWOMP 2010, Tsukuba, Japan, June 14-16, 2010 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. M. Sato, T. Hanawa, M. S. Müller, B. M. Chapman, and B. R. de Supinski (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 56–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). The Future Is Bright, The Future Is … Quantum Dot Televisions. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Charter Schools: Issues Affecting Access to Federal Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade, M. R. (2008). The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Spencer, H., and Sisario, B. (2016). $3 Million Award in Rolling Stone Case. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chan, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Waterhouse and Fusaro, 2006; Chan, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Waterhouse and Fusaro, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Cao et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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