How to format your references using the Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pirrotta, V. (2012). Molecular biology. How to read the chromatin past. Science 337, 919–920.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chiarugi, A., and Moskowitz, M. A. (2002). Cell biology. PARP-1--a perpetrator of apoptotic cell death? Science 297, 200–201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller-Butterworth, C. M., Jacobs, D. S., and Harley, E. H. (2003). Strong population substructure is correlated with morphology and ecology in a migratory bat. Nature 424, 187–191.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang, C. S., Xia, B., Zou, X., Chen, S., Ou, H.-W., Wang, L., et al. (2013). Terahertz conductivity of topological surface states in Bi₁.₅Sb₀.₅Te₁.₈Se₁.₂. Sci. Rep. 3, 3513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zinkin, J. (2013). Rebuilding Trust in Banks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Hinkson, G. (2009). Foundation Fireworks CS4. , eds. C. Erskine, M. Heerema, C. Mallott, M. Keefe, H. Griffith, C. Andres, et al. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehlotra, R. K., and Zimmerman, P. A. (2006). “Resistance to Antimalarial Drugs: Parasite and Host Genetic Factors,” in Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century., ed. P. Arese (Boston, MA: Springer US), 81–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). Stars Are Dying Puzzlingly Young. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1972). Follow up Review of Automatic Data Processing Activities Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Del Cid, E. J. (2009). Services for immigrant families with children in the child welfare system: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved, J. (2017). Browsing for Denim. Or a Toothbrush. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pirrotta, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Chiarugi and Moskowitz, 2002; Pirrotta, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chiarugi and Moskowitz, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Pharmaceutical Medicine and Outcomes Research
AbbreviationFront. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)1663-9812
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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