How to format your references using the International Journal of Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Supari, S. F. (2007). Q&A: Siti Fadilah Supari. Interviewed by Declan Butler. Nature, 450(7173), 1137.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richards, T. A., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2005). Myosin domain evolution and the primary divergence of eukaryotes. Nature, 436(7054), 1113–1118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Deng, B., Zhang, R. Q., & Shi, X. Q. (2014). New insight into the spin-conserving excitation of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Scientific Reports, 4, 5144.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stupack, D. G., Teitz, T., Potter, M. D., Mikolon, D., Houghton, P. J., Kidd, V. J., Lahti, J. M., & Cheresh, D. A. (2006). Potentiation of neuroblastoma metastasis by loss of caspase-8. Nature, 439(7072), 95–99.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Illian, J., Penttinen, A., Stoyan, H., & Stoyan, D. (2008). Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Huggan, G., & Jensen, L. (Eds.). (2016). Postcolonial Perspectives on the European High North: Unscrambling the Arctic. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Pietinen, S., Tenhunen, V., & Tukiainen, M. (2008). Productivity of Pair Programming in a Distributed Environment – Results from Two Controlled Case Studies. In R. V. O’Connor, N. Baddoo, K. Smolander, & R. Messnarz (Eds.), Software Process Improvement: 15th European Conference, EuroSPI 2008, Dublin, Ireland, September 3-5, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 47–58). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Communication.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 15). Scientists Create World’s Thinnest Light Bulb Using Graphene. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Highway Trust Fund: Overview of Highway Trust Fund Financing (GAO-02-435T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, H. (2017). Empathy in the Early Childhood Classroom: Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions, Understanding and Practices [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, August 19). Neighbors Say an S.R.O. Is O.K., Just Make It Better. New York Times, 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Supari, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Richards & Cavalier-Smith, 2005; Supari, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richards & Cavalier-Smith, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Deng et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stupack et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Communication
ISSN (print)1932-8036

Other styles