How to format your references using the International Journal of Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleinberg, J. M. (2000). Navigation in a small world. Nature, 406(6798), 845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teasley, S., & Wolinsky, S. (2001). Communication. Scientific collaborations at a distance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5525), 2254–2255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raty, J.-Y., Schwegler, E., & Bonev, S. A. (2007). Electronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium. Nature, 449(7161), 448–451.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Eckburg, P. B., Bik, E. M., Bernstein, C. N., Purdom, E., Dethlefsen, L., Sargent, M., … Relman, D. A. (2005). Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5728), 1635–1638.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitton, G. (2010). Wastewater Microbiology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zilberman, D., Otte, J., Roland-Holst, D., & Pfeiffer, D. (Eds.). (2012). Health and Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries (1st ed., Vol. 36). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Naumov, A. D., Timokhina, N. I., Litvinchuk, A. V., Vereshchako, G. G., Khodosovskaya, A. M., Sushko, S. N., & Kadukova, E. M. (2013). Radioprotective Properties of Selenomethionine with Methionine, Extracts from Basidium Fungi and Exogenous DNA. In G. N. Pierce, V. I. Mizin, & A. Omelchenko (Eds.), Advanced Bioactive Compounds Countering the Effects of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Agents: Strategies to Counter Biological Damage (pp. 55–69). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Communication.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce, H. (2017, May 15). Researchers Believe They Have Solved The 400 Year Old Mystery Of Prince Rupert’s Drops. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Race to the Top: Education Could Better Support Grantees and Help Them Address Capacity Challenges (No. GAO-15-295). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cayo, P. (2017). A Shifting Bottleneck Procedure with Multiple Objectives in a Complex Manufacturing Environment (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, December 21). Allegories of 2 Boroughs Prepare for a Homecoming. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleinberg, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kleinberg, 2000; Teasley & Wolinsky, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teasley & Wolinsky, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Raty, Schwegler, & Bonev, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Eckburg et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Communication
ISSN (print)1932-8036

Other styles