How to format your references using the International Journal of Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cortada, X. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. Painting the genome for the public. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6017), 548.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet, M. C., & Mooney, C. (2007). Science and society. Framing Science. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5821), 56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, V. N., Kataoka, N., & Dreyfuss, G. (2001). Role of the nonsense-mediated decay factor hUpf3 in the splicing-dependent exon-exon junction complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1832–1836.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Preston, B. T., Stevenson, I. R., Pemberton, J. M., & Wilson, K. (2001). Dominant rams lose out by sperm depletion. Nature, 409(6821), 681–682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, R. (2010). Seven Secrets of the Savvy School Leader. Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Hutton, R. (Ed.). (2016). Physical Evidence for Ritual Acts, Sorcery and Witchcraft in Christian Britain: A Feeling for Magic. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Herfeld, C., & Schaubroeck, K. (2013). The Importance of Commitment for Morality: How Harry Frankfurt’s Concept of Care Contributes to Rational Choice Theory. In B. Musschenga & A. van Harskamp (Eds.), What Makes Us Moral? On the capacities and conditions for being moral (pp. 51–72). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Communication.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, August 21). Neanderthals Survived Early Contact With Humans. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Transit Grants: Need for Improved Predictability, Data, and Monitoring in Application Processing (RCED-00-260). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLima, L. E. (2017). Implementing an Innovative Educational Program in an Era of Accountability: An Interview Study of the Expeditionary Learning Program [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw, N. (2017, March 10). Advice for Trump: Ask an Economist. New York Times, BU3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cortada, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cortada, 2011; Nisbet & Mooney, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet & Mooney, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Kim et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Preston et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Communication
ISSN (print)1932-8036

Other styles