How to format your references using the International Journal of Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirshner, R. P. (2003). Throwing light on dark energy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5627), 1914–1918.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, R., & Bourgeois, J. (2012). Geology. Understanding sediments--reducing tsunami risk. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1117–1118.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nudleman, E., Wall, D., & Kaiser, D. (2005). Cell-to-cell transfer of bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 125–127.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ahumada, A., Slusarski, D. C., Liu, X., Moon, R. T., Malbon, C. C., & Wang, H.-Y. (2002). Signaling of rat Frizzled-2 through phosphodiesterase and cyclic GMP. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5600), 2006–2010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rodman, G. B. (2014). Why Cultural Studies? John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hoffmann Davis, J. (Ed.). (2016). Discourse and Disjuncture between the Arts and Higher Education. Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Otsuka, M., Shimazaki, M., Kayaba, K., Sakada, T., Hara, K., Asahi, M., Arai, T., Murohashi, I., Yokoyama, K., Hasegawa, N., Kawamata, M., Suzuki, R., Fujii, C., Kunisawa, N., Kanemune, M., Shimasue, N., Shinmura, H., Nishihara, K., Inoue, K., … Tano, R. (2010). Community-Based Interprofessional Education at Saitama Prefectural University. In H. Watanabe & M. Koizumi (Eds.), Advanced Initiatives in Interprofessional Education in Japan: Japan Interprofessional Working and Education Network (pp. 39–48). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Communication.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, April 26). Why It’s Impossible To Actually Be A Vegetarian. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Weather Forecasting: Cost Growth and Delays in Billion-Dollar Weather Service Modernization (IMTEC-92-12FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cummins, K. (2015). A Mixed Methods Study on The Leader in Me Process: How Does Fostering Student Leadership Capacity Influence Behavior, Efficacy, and Achievement? [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Risen, J. (2016, October 12). An Ex-Detainee, but Still a Captive of ‘The Darkness.’ New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirshner, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kirshner, 2003; Weiss & Bourgeois, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss & Bourgeois, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Nudleman et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ahumada et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Communication
ISSN (print)1932-8036

Other styles