How to format your references using the International Journal of Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon, J. (2015). How to hijack a journal. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6263), 903–905.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wan, Z., & Zhang, G. (2014). Controlled synthesis and visible light photocatalytic activity of Bi12GeO20 uniform microcrystals. Scientific Reports, 4, 6298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ho, V. M., Lee, J.-A., & Martin, K. C. (2011). The cell biology of synaptic plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6056), 623–628.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sun, Y., Tsuchiya, Y., Taen, T., Yamada, T., Pyon, S., Sugimoto, A., Ekino, T., Shi, Z., & Tamegai, T. (2014). Dynamics and mechanism of oxygen annealing in Fe1+yTe0.6Se0.4 single crystal. Scientific Reports, 4, 4585.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dickson, E. F. G. (2012). Personal Protective Equipment for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazards. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Celebi, M. E., & Aydin, K. (Eds.). (2016). Unsupervised Learning Algorithms. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rieke, G. H. (2008). Formation and Evolution of Terrestrial Planets in Protoplanetary and Debris Disks. In J. W. Mason (Ed.), Exoplanets: Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability (pp. 89–113). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Communication.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 30). Scientists Found A New Way To Test Relativity Using Stars And A Supermassive Black Hole. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. I. No. 1 (No. 141560). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becknell, J. M. (2013). Listening to narratives of war [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman, J. (2017, October 20). Police Issue Fewer Tickets for Minor Offenses Such as Public Urination. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohannon, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bohannon, 2015; Wan & Zhang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wan & Zhang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ho et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sun et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Communication
ISSN (print)1932-8036

Other styles