How to format your references using the Microbial Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dissanayake, C. (2005) Global Voices of Science. Of stones and health: medical geology in Sri Lanka. Science 309: 883–885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luk, Y.-Y. and Abbott, N.L. (2003) Surface-driven switching of liquid crystals using redox-active groups on electrodes. Science 301: 623–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowman, M., D’Avanzo, C., and Brewer, C. (2009) Ecology. A national ecological network for research and education. Science 323: 1172–1173.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Deborde, S., Perret, E., Gravotta, D., Deora, A., Salvarezza, S., Schreiner, R., and Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (2008) Clathrin is a key regulator of basolateral polarity. Nature 452: 719–723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster, M.C. (2007) HPLC, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pina, M. and Gontier, N. eds. (2014) The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Samways, M.J. (2005) Biodiversity Conservation. In Ethics in Agriculture — An African Perspective. Niekerk, A.V. (ed). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 49–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Biotechnology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014) Fruit flies have been genetically modified to GLOW when they detect cancer. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009) Proprietary Schools: Stronger Department of Education Oversight Needed to Help Ensure Only Eligible Students Receive Federal Student Aid, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenkins, D. (2017) Leadership Best Practices for Female Executives in the Information Technology Industry.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Von Aue, M. (2017) A Radical Redo for ‘Madama Butterfly.’ New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dissanayake, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Luk and Abbott, 2003; Dissanayake, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luk and Abbott, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Deborde et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Biotechnology
AbbreviationMicrob. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)1751-7915
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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