How to format your references using the Microbial Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonzo, S.H. (2015) Evolution. An unexpected cost of sex. Science 347: 948–949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiol, J. and Pillai, R.S. (2012) Molecular biology. Outsourcing genome protection. Science 337: 529–530.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko, S., Couchman, H.M.P., and Wadsley, J. (2006) The removal of cusps from galaxy centres by stellar feedback in the early Universe. Nature 442: 539–542.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, Q., Tun, H.M., Leung, F.C.-C., and Shah, N.P. (2014) Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275. Sci Rep 4: 4974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leach, M., Drummond, M., and Doig, A. (2013) Practical Flow Cytometry in Haematology Diagnosis, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Islebe, G.A., Calmé, S., León-Cortés, J.L., and Schmook, B. eds. (2015) Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatán Peninsula, 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Riegler, A. (2007) Superstition in the Machine. In Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems: From Brains to Individual and Social Behavior. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Butz, M.V., Sigaud, O., Pezzulo, G., and Baldassarre, G. (eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Biotechnology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016) Spherical Reactor Could Be The Right Approach To Make Fusion Viable. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Information on the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement Activities, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anderson, J.S. (2008) Boys in crisis: A grounded theory study of male high school dropouts in a rural setting.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992) THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Behind the Scenes; Though Advisers Differ, Clinton’s in Tune With All. New York Times 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alonzo, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Xiol and Pillai, 2012; Alonzo, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xiol and Pillai, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Biotechnology
AbbreviationMicrob. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)1751-7915
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

Other styles