How to format your references using the Microbial Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Arnold, F.H. (2001) Combinatorial and computational challenges for biocatalyst design. Nature 409: 253–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Adesnik, H. and Scanziani, M. (2010) Lateral competition for cortical space by layer-specific horizontal circuits. Nature 464: 1155–1160.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roopnarine, P.D., Angielczyk, K.D., and Hertog, R. (2006) Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science 314: 925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zheng, B., Ma, Y.C., Ostrom, R.S., Lavoie, C., Gill, G.N., Insel, P.A., et al. (2001) RGS-PX1, a GAP for GalphaS and sorting nexin in vesicular trafficking. Science 294: 1939–1942.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society (2012) Recommendations for Design and Analysis of Earth Structures using Geosynthetic Reinforcements - EBGEO, Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Ismail, A.F. (2011) Carbon-based Membranes for Separation Processes, Rana, D., Matsuura, T., and Foley, H.C. (eds) New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bertino, E., Martino, L.D., Paci, F., and Squicciarini, A.C. (2010) Standards for Web Services Security. In Security for Web Services and Service-Oriented Architectures. Martino, L., Paci, F., and Squicciarini, A. (eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 45–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Biotechnology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) Deepest High-Temperature Hydrothermal Vents Discovered In The Pacific. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) Information Technology: Additional Executive Review Sessions Needed to Address Troubled Projects, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Volle, M. (2017) Exploring the relationship of meetings to organizational culture and values.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016) Insanity Most Genteel. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Arnold, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Arnold, 2001; Adesnik and Scanziani, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Adesnik and Scanziani, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Zheng et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Biotechnology
AbbreviationMicrob. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)1751-7915
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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