How to format your references using the Microbial Biotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Microbial Biotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D. (2002) Drawing back the talent: Canada. Nature 415: 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allcott, H. and Mullainathan, S. (2010) Energy. Behavior and energy policy. Science 327: 1204–1205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, Y.K., Lee, H., and Park, J.Y. (2014) Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. Sci. Rep. 4: 4580.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Meckes, B., Arce, F.T., Connelly, L.S., and Lal, R. (2014) Insulated conducting cantilevered nanotips and two-chamber recording system for high resolution ion sensing AFM. Sci. Rep. 4: 4454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, D.J., Dyson, P.J., and Tavener, S.J. (2005) Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Denz, C., Flach, S., and Kivshar, Y.S. eds. (2010) Nonlinearities in Periodic Structures and Metamaterials Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, R. and Hua, C. (2016) Spectrum Sensing and Access in Cognitive Radio Networks. In, Hua,C. (ed), Sequential Learning and Decision-Making in Wireless Resource Management, Wireless Networks. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 61–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Microbial Biotechnology.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017) Spring Just Arrived In America Three Weeks Early. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Direct Student Loan Program: Management Actions Could Enhance Customer Service U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walther, R.L. (2017) Approaches to Stream Restoration: Practices in Missouri and Illinois.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M. (2017) Investors Lose Patience As Retail Fails to Rally. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spurgeon, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Spurgeon, 2002; Allcott and Mullainathan, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Allcott and Mullainathan, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Meckes et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMicrobial Biotechnology
AbbreviationMicrob. Biotechnol.
ISSN (online)1751-7915
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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