How to format your references using the International Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birnbaum MJ. Signal transduction. Sweet conundrum. Science 2008;319:1348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schink B, Friedrich M. Phosphite oxidation by sulphate reduction. Nature 2000;406:37.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roopnarine PD, Angielczyk KD, Hertog R. Comment on “Statistical independence of escalatory ecological trends in Phanerozoic marine invertebrates.” Science 2006;314:925; author reply 925.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Greilich A, Shabaev A, Yakovlev DR, Efros AL, Yugova IA, Reuter D, Wieck AD, Bayer M. Nuclei-induced frequency focusing of electron spin coherence. Science 2007;317:1896–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bayés de Luna A. Clinical Arrhythmology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
An edited book
Volkmann CK, Tokarski KO, Ernst K, eds. Social Entrepreneurship and Social Business: An Introduction and Discussion with Case Studies. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag, 2012. XII, 285 p. 47 illusp
A chapter in an edited book
Cherry JD. How Can We Eradicate Pertussis. In: Finn A, Curtis N, Pollard AJ, eds. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children V. New York, NY: Springer US, 2009. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
Hale T. What Caused China’s ‘Floating City’ In The Sky? [Internet]. IFLScience2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. VA Student Financial Aid: Opportunity to Reduce Overlap in Approving Education and Training Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Virchez Azuara A. A human resource perspective on the development of workforce agility. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. A Giants Rookie Casts a Thoughtful Eye on the World. New York Times2016;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationInt. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0020-7136
ISSN (online)1097-0215
ScopeCancer Research

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