How to format your references using the International Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lake JA. Disappearing act. Nature 2007;446:983.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pullum GK, Scholz BC. More than words. Nature 2001;413:367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lower SK, Hochella MF Jr, Beveridge TJ. Bacterial recognition of mineral surfaces: nanoscale interactions between Shewanella and alpha-FeOOH. Science 2001;292:1360–3.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Topál J, Gergely G, Miklósi A, Erdohegyi A, Csibra G. Infants’ perseverative search errors are induced by pragmatic misinterpretation. Science 2008;321:1831–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paczosa S, Peruchini C. Selling Professional and Financial Services Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Sumi A, Fukushi K, Hiramatsu A, eds. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2010. XVIII, 336 pp
A chapter in an edited book
Herren C. An Un-American Horror Story. In: Lowery C, Walker A, Thomas C, eds. Un-Democratic Acts: New Departures for Dialogues in Society and Schools. Rotterdam: SensePublishers, 2016. 51–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
Hale T. Pouring Sulfuric Acid Onto Toilet Roll Is Oddly Satisfying [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status and Issues Pertaining to the Proposed Development of the Space Telescope Project. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Corbets JB. Evaluating System Architecture Quality and Architecting Team Performance Using Information Quality Theory. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. From Raising Consciousness to Raising Hell. New York Times2017;SR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationInt. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0020-7136
ISSN (online)1097-0215
ScopeCancer Research

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