How to format your references using the International Journal of Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu X. Journal club. A palaeontologist considers the evolution of birds’ mechanism of breathing. Nature 2010;464:961.
A journal article with 2 authors
Macnaghten P, Owen R. Environmental science: good governance for geoengineering. Nature 2011;479:293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Telford RJ, Vandvik V, Birks HJB. Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies. Science 2006;312:1015.
A journal article with 13 or more authors
Tahiliani M, Mei P, Fang R, Leonor T, Rutenberg M, Shimizu F, Li J, Rao A, Shi Y. The histone H3K4 demethylase SMCX links REST target genes to X-linked mental retardation. Nature 2007;447:601–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams DJ, Dyson PJ, Tavener SJ. Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
Fairchild PJ, ed. The Immunological Barriers to Regenerative Medicine. New York, NY: Springer, 2013. XIV, 334 pp
A chapter in an edited book
Roos D, Spits H, Hack CE. Innate immunity — phagocytes, natural killer cells and the complement system. In: Nijkamp FP, Parnham MJ, eds. Principles of Immunopharmacology. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2005. 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Cancer.

Blog post
Andrews R. China Plans To Build 20 Floating Nuclear Power Plants In The South China Sea [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: Perceptions of Stakeholders on Approaches to Reduce Highway Project Completion Time. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eisenberg DA. Effectiveness of an eel curriculum on student achievement for the California earth science standard on ocean currents A comparative analysis. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Sharapova’s Entry to Wimbledon: Qualify. New York Times2017;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Cancer
AbbreviationInt. J. Cancer
ISSN (print)0020-7136
ISSN (online)1097-0215
ScopeCancer Research

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