How to format your references using the International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balents, Leon. 2010. “Spin Liquids in Frustrated Magnets.” Nature 464 (7286): 199–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armitage, Andrew E., and Hal Drakesmith. 2014. “Genetics. The Battle for Iron.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6215): 1299–1300.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lake, Brenden M., Ruslan Salakhutdinov, and Joshua B. Tenenbaum. 2015. “Human-Level Concept Learning through Probabilistic Program Induction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6266): 1332–1338.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Blasco, Ruth, Clive Finlayson, Jordi Rosell, Antonio Sánchez Marco, Stewart Finlayson, Geraldine Finlayson, Juan José Negro, Francisco Giles Pacheco, and Joaquín Rodríguez Vidal. 2014. “The Earliest Pigeon Fanciers.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 5971.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nomura, Seiichi. 2016. Micromechanics with Mathematica. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liamputtong, Pranee, ed. 2013. Women, Motherhood and Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Collier, John. 2010. “A Dynamical Approach to Identity and Diversity in Complex Systems.” In Complexity, Difference and Identity: An Ethical Perspective, edited by Paul Cilliers and Rika Preiser, 79–93. Issues in Business Ethics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “The Most Commonly Hacked Passwords In 2016 Were... Painfully Obvious.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. 130998. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Berbery, Maria Luz. 2010. “Predictors of White Adoptive Parents’ Cultural and Racial Socialization Behaviors with Their Asian Adopted Children.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey, Nicholas. 2016. “Rebel Group in Colombia Enters Talks.” New York Times, March 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Balents 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Balents 2010; Armitage and Drakesmith 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armitage and Drakesmith 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lake, Salakhutdinov, and Tenenbaum 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Blasco et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Biling. Educ. Biling.
ISSN (print)1367-0050
ISSN (online)1747-7522
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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