How to format your references using the International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hauser, Marc D. 2005. “Natural History. Beyond the Chimpanzee Genome: The Threat of Extinction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 309 (5740): 1498–1499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bintanja, R., and E. C. van der Linden. 2013. “The Changing Seasonal Climate in the Arctic.” Scientific Reports 3: 1556.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yue, Han, Thorne Lay, and Keith D. Koper. 2012. “En Échelon and Orthogonal Fault Ruptures of the 11 April 2012 Great Intraplate Earthquakes.” Nature 490 (7419): 245–249.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Saphire, E. O., P. W. Parren, R. Pantophlet, M. B. Zwick, G. M. Morris, P. M. Rudd, R. A. Dwek, R. L. Stanfield, D. R. Burton, and I. A. Wilson. 2001. “Crystal Structure of a Neutralizing Human IGG against HIV-1: A Template for Vaccine Design.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5532): 1155–1159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nova, Roberto. 2013. Soil Mechanics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Veiga, Lourenço Beirão da. 2014. The Mimetic Finite Difference Method for Elliptic Problems. Edited by Konstantin Lipnikov and Gianmarco Manzini. Vol. 11. MS&A - Modeling, Simulation and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Klein, Alexander, and Guido Nikkah. 2008. “Neural Transplantation and Restoration of Motor Behaviour in Parkinson‘s Disease.” In Samii’s Essentials in Neurosurgery, edited by Marco Tatagiba, 35–48. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Turning Diamonds’ Defects Into Long-Term 3-D Data Storage.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. DOD Systems Modernization: Planned Investment in the Naval Tactical Command Support System Needs to Be Reassessed. GAO-06-215. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lackey, Gordon Mims. 2015. “The Efficacy of Using a Natural Soil Additive for the Establishment, Survival and Diversity of Native Prairie and Spontaneously Colonizing Plant Communities on Unirrigated Green Roofs in a Humid Subtropical Climate.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “Book to Examine Trump-Russia Ties.” New York Times, September 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hauser 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hauser 2005; Bintanja and van der Linden 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bintanja and van der Linden 2013)
  • Three authors: (Yue, Lay, and Koper 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Saphire et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
AbbreviationInt. J. Biling. Educ. Biling.
ISSN (print)1367-0050
ISSN (online)1747-7522
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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