How to format your references using the International Journal of Audiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Audiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lamb, S., 2001. Walking with producers. Nature, 412(6844), p.277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhao, M., Running, S.W., 2010. Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000 through 2009. Science, 329(5994), p.940–943.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keller, R.A., Fisk, M.R., White, W.M., 2000. Isotopic evidence for Late Cretaceous plume-ridge interaction at the Hawaiian hotspot. Nature, 405(6787), p.673–676.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Liu, K., Yao, Y., Kang, Y., Liu, Y., Han, Y., et al, 2013. A supramolecular approach to fabricate highly emissive smart materials. Sci. Rep., 3, p.2372.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bannwarth, H., 2005. Liquid Ring Vacuum Pumps, Compressors and Systems, Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Dash, S.S., Bhaskar, M.A., Panigrahi, B.K., Das, S. eds., 2016. Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAIECES 2015 1st ed. 2016., New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Flesca, S., Furfaro, F., Parisi, F., 2011. Consistent Answers to Aggregate Queries. In F. Furfaro & F. Parisi, eds. Repairing and Querying Databases under Aggregate Constraints. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 47–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Audiology.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Colossal “Lake” Discovered Hiding Beneath Ancient Bolivian Volcano. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975. Pilot Cities Program: Phaseout Needed Due To Limited National Benefits, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, C., 2010. An after-school program at the middle school level for at-risk youth. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. C.E.O.s Long Avoided Politics. Trump Is Changing the Calculus. New York Times, p.B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lamb, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lamb, 2001; Zhao & Running, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhao & Running, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Audiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Audiol.
ISSN (print)1499-2027
ISSN (online)1708-8186
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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