How to format your references using the International Journal of Audiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Audiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. A chemical imbalance. Nature, 418(6894), p.3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long, Y., Wang, J., 2014. Optically-controlled extinction ratio and Q-factor tunable silicon microring resonators based on optical forces. Sci. Rep., 4, p.5409.
A journal article with 3 authors
de la Mare, W., Gales, N., Mangel, M., 2014. Science and Law. Applying scientific principles in international law on whaling. Science, 345(6201), p.1125–1126.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Ahn, S.J., Moon, P., Kim, T.-H., Kim, H.-W., Shin, H.-C., et al, 2018. Dirac electrons in a dodecagonal graphene quasicrystal. Science, 361(6404), p.782–786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu, E., 2011. Design of Buildings for Wind, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, F.M., 2005. CCD Image Sensors in Deep-Ultraviolet: Degradation Behavior and Damage Mechanisms A. Nathan, ed., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Landolt, A.U., 2011. Johnson Photometry and Its Descendants. In E. F. Milone & C. Sterken, eds. Astronomical Photometry: Past, Present, and Future. Astrophysics and Space Science Library. New York, NY: Springer, pp. 109–125.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Audiology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Use 3D Printing To Produce Blood Vessels. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. U.S. Airlines: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bravo, M., 2015. The development of a viable business plan: Analytics of 30 day readmission rates for hospitals and ancillary services. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman, J., Chokshi, N., 2017. In Historic Shift, Boy Scouts Will Accept Girls. New York Times, p.A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2002; Long & Wang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Long & Wang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahn et al, 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Audiology
AbbreviationInt. J. Audiol.
ISSN (print)1499-2027
ISSN (online)1708-8186
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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