How to format your references using the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schlamminger S. Fundamental constants: a cool way to measure big G. Nature 2014; 510(7506):478–480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Czakó G, Bowman JM. Dynamics of the reaction of methane with chlorine atom on an accurate potential energy surface. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2011; 334(6054):343–346.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palla G, Barabási A-L, Vicsek T. Quantifying social group evolution. Nature 2007; 446(7136):664–667.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hu Q, Xu D-H, Zhou Y, et al. Position-sensitive spectral splitting with a plasmonic nanowire on silicon chip. Scientific reports 2013; 3:3095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Geng H. Data Center Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Martellini M ed. Cyber Security: Deterrence and IT Protection for Critical Infrastructures. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ryan TM, Sukhdeo S. KSD-VP-1/1: Analysis of the Postcranial Skeleton Using High-Resolution Computed Tomography. In: Haile-Selassie Y, Su DF, eds. The Postcranial Anatomy of Australopithecus afarensis: New Insights from KSD-VP-1/1. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016:39–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz S. Human Language Gene Helps Mice Learn Tasks. IFLScience September 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Narrowband Personal Communications Services and Competitive Bidding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson J-MC. The effect of class size on a teacher’s job satisfaction in a southeastern urban LEA. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. A Beachside Rave, by Way of Brooklyn. New York Times. July 5, 2017:D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationInt. j. numer. method. biomed. eng.
ISSN (print)2040-7939
ISSN (online)2040-7947
ScopeMolecular Biology
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles