How to format your references using the International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gerrish P. The rhythm of microbial adaptation. Nature 2001; 413(6853):299–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee SWS, Schwarz N. Washing away postdecisional dissonance. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2010; 328(5979):709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Portmann O, Vaterlaus A, Pescia D. An inverse transition of magnetic domain patterns in ultrathin films. Nature 2003; 422(6933):701–704.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hagoort P, Hald L, Bastiaansen M, Petersson KM. Integration of word meaning and world knowledge in language comprehension. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2004; 304(5669):438–441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sierra MA, de la Torre MC, Cossío FP. More Dead Ends and Detours. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Levin Z, Cotton WR eds. Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation: A Scientific Review. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Magarelli N, Carducci C, Dell’Atti C. Imaging of the Shoulder. In: Milano G, Grasso A, eds. Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice. London: Springer; 2014:45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Teach Birds The “Language” Of Another Bird Species. IFLScience July 17, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Numbers: Federal Actions Could Further Decrease Availability in Public Records, though Other Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolodkowicz R. Leadership qualities and employee-student future intentions. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Creswell J, de la MERCED MJ. Activist Investor Seeks Seat at Procter & Gamble. New York Times. July 17, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
AbbreviationInt. j. numer. method. biomed. eng.
ISSN (print)2040-7939
ISSN (online)2040-7947
ScopeMolecular Biology
Computational Theory and Mathematics
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation

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