How to format your references using the Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Schmidt, Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Evolution of vertebrate transcriptional regulator binding, Science. 342 (2013) 1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.H. Thompson, C. Orvig, Boon and bane of metal ions in medicine, Science. 300 (2003) 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.C. Clement, R. Burgman, J.R. Norris, Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback, Science. 325 (2009) 460–464.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
V. Lainey, J.-E. Arlot, O. Karatekin, T. Van Hoolst, Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations, Nature. 459 (2009) 957–959.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Berto, There’s Something about Gödel, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2009.
An edited book
H.O. Ventura, ed., Pharmacologic Trends of Heart Failure, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Schneider, Comment on: EU Export Specialization Patterns in Selected Accession Countries, in: P.J.J. Welfens, A. Wziątek-Kubiak (Eds.), Structural Change and Exchange Rate Dynamics: The Economics of EU Eastern Enlargement, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005: pp. 73–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Balloon Capsule That Will Take People To The Edge Of Space Completes Test Flight, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Leadership Needed to Collect and Disseminate Critical Biomedical Equipment Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.M. Jo, A study of Korean students’ creativity in science using structural equation modeling, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Europe: Azerbaijan: Opposition Urges Protests Over Killing, New York Times. (2005) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications
AbbreviationNonlinear Anal. Real World Appl.
ISSN (print)1468-1218
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance
General Engineering
Applied Mathematics
Computational Mathematics
General Medicine

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