How to format your references using the Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Dennis, Small RNAs: the genome’s guiding hand?, Nature. 420 (2002) 732.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Long, J. Wang, Optically-controlled extinction ratio and Q-factor tunable silicon microring resonators based on optical forces, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5409.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.N. Mitchell, T.M. Kilian, D.A.D. Evans, Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time, Nature. 482 (2012) 208–211.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
N. Kröger, S. Lorenz, E. Brunner, M. Sumper, Self-assembly of highly phosphorylated silaffins and their function in biosilica morphogenesis, Science. 298 (2002) 584–586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.Y.F. Lau, An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
I. Poggi, F. D’Errico, L. Vincze, A. Vinciarelli, eds., Multimodal Communication in Political Speech. Shaping Minds and Social Action: International Workshop, Political Speech 2010, Rome, Italy, November 10-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Moore, Feminist Changes in Israel, in: A. Rutherford, R. Capdevila, V. Undurti, I. Palmary (Eds.), Handbook of International Feminisms: Perspectives on Psychology, Women, Culture, and Rights, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How Did 4th-Century Roman Coins End Up In A Medieval Japanese Castle?, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Automated Welfare Systems: Historical Costs and Projections, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Naik, Automating the process of antibiotic susceptibility testing, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
C. Kelly, After 117 Years, a Family Business Calls It Quits, New York Times. (2007) WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics
AbbreviationOptik (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)0030-4026
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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