How to format your references using the Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Baulcombe, DNA events. An RNA microcosm, Science. 297 (2002) 2002–2003.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Mitchell-Olds, C.A. Knight, Evolution. Chaperones as buffering agents?, Science. 296 (2002) 2348–2349.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Siegel, T.J. Buschman, E.K. Miller, Cortical information flow during flexible sensorimotor decisions, Science. 348 (2015) 1352–1355.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Piot, R.G.A. Feachem, J.-W. Lee, J.D. Wolfensohn, Public health. A global response to AIDS: lessons learned, next steps, Science. 304 (2004) 1909–1910.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Fiorenzani, S. Ravelli, E. Edoli, The Handbook of Energy Trading, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 2012.
An edited book
D. Liu, L. Wang, K.C. Tan, eds., Design and Control of Intelligent Robotic Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Y.-H. Jou, Family Relationship Quality and Its Psychological Effects Among Taiwanese Adolescents, in: C.-C. Yi (Ed.), The Psychological Well-Being of East Asian Youth, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 69–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics.

Blog post
J. Fang, How Borneo’s Unique Mountain Wildlife Evolved, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Aid And Postsecondary Tax Preferences: Limited Research Exists on Effectiveness of Tools to Assist Students and Families through Title IV Student Aid and Tax Preferences, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Berkland, Strain analysis of a detachment shear zone, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, S. Maheshwari, With a ‘Roseanne’ Revival and the Backstreet Boys, ABC Mines the Past, New York Times. (2017) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics
AbbreviationOptik (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)0030-4026
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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