How to format your references using the Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Inguscio, Physics. How to freeze out collisions, Science. 300 (2003) 1671–1673.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.H. Beatty, A.G. Good, Plant science. Future prospects for cereals that fix nitrogen, Science. 333 (2011) 416–417.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.A. Clark, C.W. Sugnet, M. Ares Jr, Genomewide analysis of mRNA processing in yeast using splicing-specific microarrays, Science. 296 (2002) 907–910.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Mei, S. Zhang, N. Tang, J. Duan, F. Xu, Y. Chen, W. Ge, B. Shen, Spin transport study in a Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4030.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Tang, The Data Industry: The Business and Economics of Information and Big Data, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
H. Ammari, Polarization and Moment Tensors: With Applications to Inverse Problems and Effective Medium Theory, Springer, New York, NY, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Gheorghe, S. Neuhaus, B. Crispo, xESB: An Enterprise Service Bus for Access and Usage Control Policy Enforcement, in: M. Nishigaki, A. Jøsang, Y. Murayama, S. Marsh (Eds.), Trust Management IV: 4th IFIP WG 11.11 International Conference, IFIPTM 2010, Morioka, Japan, June 16-18, 2010. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010: pp. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Weekend Warrior Exercise: Is It Good For You?, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Progress Has Been Made, but Improvements Are Needed to Effectively Manage Risks, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.D. Luvani, AIRtouch: An Intelligent Virtual Keyboard, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Markoff, Microsoft Spends Big to Build a Computer Straight Out of Science Fiction, New York Times. (2016) B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics
AbbreviationOptik (Stuttg.)
ISSN (print)0030-4026
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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