How to format your references using the American Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Schwartz M. Perspective: incision revision. Nature. 2014;516(7529):S17.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Vaquero LM, Cebrian M. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1174.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Gächter S, Renner E, Sefton M. The long-run benefits of punishment. Science. 2008;322(5907):1510.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Huang X, McCoy AB, Bowman JM, et al. Quantum deconstruction of the infrared spectrum of CH5+. Science. 2006;311(5757):60-63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Zheng Y, Xu X, Xu Z, Wang J, Cai H. Metallic Biomaterials. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Harris D, ed. Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 8th International Conference, EPCE 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009. Proceedings. Vol 5639. Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Giannone D, Monti F, Reichlin L. Incorporating Conjunctural Analysis in Structural Models. In: Wieland V, ed. The Science and Practice of Monetary Policy Today: The Deutsche Bank Prize in Financial Economics 2007. Springer; 2010:41-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Newly Identified Hormone Reduces Diet-Induced Obesity In Rodents. IFLScience. Published March 4, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/newly-identified-hormone-reduces-diet-induced-obesity-rodents/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Issues Related to Local Telephone Service. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Chan K. Planned experiences compared to performance standards for entry-level dietetic interns. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Eligon J, Nolan K. In Milwaukee, Worries Over Eliminating Rule That Police Must Live in City. New York Times. August 19, 2016:A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationAm. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0090-0036
ISSN (online)1541-0048
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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