How to format your references using the American Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fraser B. The first South Americans: Extreme living. Nature. 2014;514(7520):24-26.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirane M, Nakayama KI. Protrudin induces neurite formation by directional membrane trafficking. Science. 2006;314(5800):818-821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Warrick DR, Tobalske BW, Powers DR. Aerodynamics of the hovering hummingbird. Nature. 2005;435(7045):1094-1097.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jung A, Maier R, Vartanian JP, et al. Recombination: Multiply infected spleen cells in HIV patients. Nature. 2002;418(6894):144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shafer G, Vovk V. Probability and Finance: It’s Only a Game! John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Garcia-Verdugo JM. Identification and Characterization of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain. Vol 203. (Alvarez-Buylla A, Gil-Perotín S, eds.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugi M, Murakami H, Yoshimura J. Mechanism of the Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Frequency Changes due to Global Warming. In: Mohanty UC, Mohapatra M, Singh OP, Bandyopadhyay BK, Rathore LS, eds. Monitoring and Prediction of Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Ocean and Climate Change. Springer Netherlands; 2014:40-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
Andrew E. Are Artificial Wombs And Lab-Grown Babies The Future Of Childbirth? IFLScience. Published May 29, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Homeland Security: DHS Enterprise Architecture Continues to Evolve but Improvements Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Truong T. Microfluidics-Based System for High-Throughput Analysis of Nitrite in Harbor Water. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Mets, Shedding Veterans, Send Walker to Brewers. New York Times. August 13, 2017:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationAm. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0090-0036
ISSN (online)1541-0048
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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