How to format your references using the American Journal of Public Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Public Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kane TJ. Education. The long road to race-blindness. Science. 2003;302(5645):571-573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinn J, Guttman M. RNA Function. RNA and dynamic nuclear organization. Science. 2014;345(6202):1240-1241.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chávez AE, Singer JH, Diamond JS. Fast neurotransmitter release triggered by Ca influx through AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Nature. 2006;443(7112):705-708.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fuhrmann J, Schmidt A, Spiess S, et al. McsB is a protein arginine kinase that phosphorylates and inhibits the heat-shock regulator CtsR. Science. 2009;324(5932):1323-1327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Trout J, Rivkin S. Differentiate or Die. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Martino F. Imaging Del Trauma Osteo-Articolare in Età Pediatrica: Lesioni Acute e Croniche Dello Scheletro in Accrescimento. (Defilippi C, Caudana R, eds.). Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Sweeney JD. Transcutaneous Muscle Stimulation. In: Ho JD, Kroll MW, eds. TASER® Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology, Pathology, and Law. Springer US; 2009:51-62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Public Health.

Blog post
Andrews R. Supervolcano Magma Chambers Recharge In Just 500 Years. IFLScience. Published October 22, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Loans: Borrower Interest Rates Cannot Be Set in Advance to Precisely and Consistently Balance Federal Revenues and Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Darnell C. Sharecropping in Higher Education: Case Study of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University - Florida State University Joint College of Engineering. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gabler E, Fink S, Yee V. A Preventable Descent Into Suffocating Chaos. New York Times. September 23, 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Public Health
AbbreviationAm. J. Public Health
ISSN (print)0090-0036
ISSN (online)1541-0048
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles