How to format your references using the International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek, F., 2013. Physics: The enigmatic electron. Nature 498, 31–32.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harpole, W.S., Tilman, D., 2007. Grassland species loss resulting from reduced niche dimension. Nature 446, 791–793.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., Zhu, L., Gummerum, M., 2014. The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism. Sci. Rep. 4, 4314.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Zhu, X., Torelli, A.T., Lee, M., Dzikovski, B., Koralewski, R.M., Wang, E., Freed, J., Krebs, C., Ealick, S.E., Lin, H., 2010. Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme. Nature 465, 891–896.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wuestenberg, K., 2012. Clinical Small Animal Care. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, Iowa, USA.
An edited book
Behrends, E., Crato, N., Rodrigues, J.F. (Eds.), 2012. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Schaeffter, T., Dahnke, H., 2008. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy, in: Semmler, W., Schwaiger, M. (Eds.), Molecular Imaging I, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Mysterious Plumes On Mars Baffle Astronomers [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-95-21(3)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zelaya, G.S., 2012. Hopelessness and diabetes: Do Hispanic diabetic patients feel less hopeless eating fruits, vegetables and exercising regularly? (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Card, J., 2017. Breathtaking Beauty. New York Times TR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilczek, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Harpole and Tilman, 2007; Wilczek, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harpole and Tilman, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife
AbbreviationInt. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl.
ISSN (print)2213-2244
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Infectious Diseases

Other styles