How to format your references using the Dysphagia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dysphagia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ellman JA. Chemistry. The direct approach. Science. 2007;316:1131–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhu F, Zhang X. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of phagocytosis of virus in Drosophila. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2069.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Serreze MC, Holland MM, Stroeve J. Perspectives on the Arctic’s shrinking sea-ice cover. Science. 2007;315:1533–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ren T, He W, Li Y, Grosh K, Fridberger A. Light-induced vibration in the hearing organ. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Keiser G. FTTX Concepts and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Pearton SJ. Gallium Nitride Processing for Electronics, Sensors and Spintronics. Abernathy CR, Ren F, editors. London: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fickers P, Nicaud J-M. Biotechnological Applications of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipases: An Overview. In: Barth G, editor. Yarrowia lipolytica: Biotechnological Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 121–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dysphagia.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Couples Who Share Housework Equally Have More Sex, Claims Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Opportunities for Oversight and Improved Use of Taxpayer Funds: Examples from Selected GAO Work. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Aug. Report No.: GAO-03-1006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Todman JV. Applicability of health care leadership competence and leadership behaviors for women’s achieving health care executive status [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pilon M. Review of Texas Association Sought. New York Times. 2012 Mar 23;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDysphagia
ISSN (print)0179-051X
ISSN (online)1432-0460
Speech and Hearing

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