How to format your references using the Dysphagia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dysphagia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Tian P. Convergence: Where West meets East. Nature. 2011;480:S84-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Maizels RM, Gause WC. Immunology. How helminths go viral. Science. 2014;345:517–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dahl JE, Liu SG, Carlson RMK. Isolation and structure of higher diamondoids, nanometer-sized diamond molecules. Science. 2003;299:96–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Zhang S, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Q. Robust ferromagnetism in monolayer chromium nitride. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5241.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bottomley GE. Channel Equalization for Wireless Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Hiai F. Introduction to Matrix Analysis and Applications. Petz D, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rozowsky J, Bertone P, Royce T, Weissman S, Snyder M, Gerstein M. Analysis of Genomic Tiling Microarrays for Transcript Mapping and the Identification of Transcription Factor Binding Sites. In: Setubal JC, Verjovski-Almeida S, editors. Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2005, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil, July 27-29, 2005 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 28–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dysphagia.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Watch: Snake Vomits Up Another LIVE SNAKE After Being Startled [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/snake-swallows-then-regurgitates-fellow-snake-amazingly-still-alive/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Automation in the Workplace: Barriers, Impact on the Work Force, and the Federal Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Jun. Report No.: 118784.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Seefried VI. Timely and accurate decision-making during U.S. public health emergencies: Incremental Dynamic Decision-making (IDD) for public health emergency response [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Bob Dylan Delivers His Nobel Lecture. New York Times. 2017 Jun 5;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDysphagia
AbbreviationDysphagia
ISSN (print)0179-051X
ISSN (online)1432-0460
ScopeGastroenterology
Otorhinolaryngology
Speech and Hearing

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