How to format your references using the Dysphagia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dysphagia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lewis R. Growth industry. Nature. 2004;428:348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dezhina I, Graham LR. Research funding. Science foundations: a novelty in Russian science. Science. 2005;310:1772–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. King G, Pan J, Roberts ME. Political science. Reverse-engineering censorship in China: randomized experimentation and participant observation. Science. 2014;345:1251722.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tiwari M, Sharma D, Singh M, Tripathi RD, Trivedi PK. Expression of OsMATE1 and OsMATE2 alters development, stress responses and pathogen susceptibility in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diamond D. Trading as a Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
1. Eckermann E, editor. Gender, Lifespan and Quality of Life: An International Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Feierman JR. How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection? In: Voland E, Schiefenhövel W, editors. The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dysphagia.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Why we love repetition in music. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Feb. Report No.: 135760.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hudson WC. Spreading the dao, managing mastership, and performing salvation: The life and alchemical teachings of Chen Zhixu [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Otis J, Sweis RF. An Iraqi Family Split by the Vagaries of Asylum. New York Times. 2017 Jan 28;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDysphagia
AbbreviationDysphagia
ISSN (print)0179-051X
ISSN (online)1432-0460
ScopeGastroenterology
Otorhinolaryngology
Speech and Hearing

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