How to format your references using the Building and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Building and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Hejnol, Evolutionary biology: Excitation over jelly nerves, Nature. 510 (2014) 38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Fitoussi, B. Bourdon, Silicon isotope evidence against an enstatite chondrite Earth, Science. 335 (2012) 1477–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Chen, P.W. Tillberg, E.S. Boyden, Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy, Science. 347 (2015) 543–548.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.-R.A. Song, D.V. Helmberger, M.R. Brudzinski, R.W. Clayton, P. Davis, X. Pérez-Campos, S.K. Singh, Subducting slab ultra-slow velocity layer coincident with silent earthquakes in southern Mexico, Science. 324 (2009) 502–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.J. Donham, A. Thelin, Agricultural Medicine, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
W. Leal Filho, L. Brandli, O. Kuznetsova, A.M.F. do Paço, eds., Integrative Approaches to Sustainable Development at University Level: Making the Links, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Z. Krishans, A. Mutule, Y. Merkuryev, I. Oleinikova, Optimal Initial States Method, in: A. Mutule, Y. Merkuryev, I. Oleinikova (Eds.), Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development: Methods for Large Technical Systems, Springer, London, 2011: pp. 45–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Building and Environment.

Blog post
J. Davis, New Hormone Therapy Could Slow Half of all Breast Cancers, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pell Grant Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Bennett, The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.W. Walsh, After a Pension Fraud Case, Wondering Who’s Up Next, New York Times. (2010) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBuilding and Environment
AbbreviationBuild. Environ.
ISSN (print)0360-1323
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Building and Construction
Environmental Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles