How to format your references using the International Economic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Economic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman, M. (2007). A merger too far? Nature, 446(7131), 15.
A journal article with 2 authors
D’Souza, V., & Summers, M. F. (2004). Structural basis for packaging the dimeric genome of Moloney murine leukaemia virus. Nature, 431(7008), 586–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fändrich, M., Fletcher, M. A., & Dobson, C. M. (2001). Amyloid fibrils from muscle myoglobin. Nature, 410(6825), 165–166.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kashlinsky, A., Arendt, R. G., Mather, J., & Moseley, S. H. (2005). Tracing the first stars with fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background. Nature, 438(7064), 45–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gladon, R. J., Graves, W. R., & Kelly, J. M. (2011). Getting Published in the Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Grady, M. (2016). The Shawshank Experience: Tracking the History of the World’s Favorite Movie (T. Magistrale, Ed.). Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, J. Z. M., & Ji, Y. (2016). Lu Fo: Fusing Western and Daoist Poetics. In Y. Ji (Ed.), Canadian-Daoist Poetics, Ethics, and Aesthetics: An Interdisciplinary and Cross-cultural Study (pp. 49–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Economic Journal.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 8). Bizarre Bulge Spotted On Ganymede. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). FAA Facilities: Improved Condition Assessment Methods Could Better Inform Maintenance Decisions and Capital- Planning Efforts (GAO-13-757). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Claypool, K. K. (2017). Organizational Success: How the Presence of Happiness in the Workplace Affects Employee Engagement that Leads to Organizational Success [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (1999, March 7). The Sailors Of Winter: In the Cold, Cold Sea. New York Times, 812.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wadman, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (D’Souza & Summers, 2004; Wadman, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (D’Souza & Summers, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Fändrich et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kashlinsky et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Economic Journal
AbbreviationInt. Econ. J.
ISSN (print)1016-8737
ISSN (online)1743-517X
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance

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