How to format your references using the Biomedicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mundy, D. Recruiters and academia. Lessons learned from a denied grant. Zen and the art of grant application. Nature 2005, 435, 382.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schafer, R.J.; Moore, T. Selective attention from voluntary control of neurons in prefrontal cortex. Science 2011, 332, 1568–1571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nam, K.H.; Park, I.H.; Ko, S.H. Patterning by controlled cracking. Nature 2012, 485, 221–224.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lamers, M.H.; Perrakis, A.; Enzlin, J.H.; Winterwerp, H.H.; de Wind, N.; Sixma, T.K. The crystal structure of DNA mismatch repair protein MutS binding to a G x T mismatch. Nature 2000, 407, 711–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shelton, T. Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2013; ISBN 9781118555910.
An edited book
Multiple Dimensions of Caregiving and Disability: Research, Practice, Policy; Talley, R.C., Crews, J.E., Eds.; Caregiving: Research • Practice • Policy; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; ISBN 9781461433835.
A chapter in an edited book
Marek, T.; Krejcar, O. Optimization of 3D Rendering in Mobile Devices. In Mobile Web and Intelligent Information Systems: 12th International Conference, MobiWis 2015, Rome, Italy, August 24-26, 2015, Proceedings; Younas, M., Awan, I., Mecella, M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 37–48 ISBN 9783319231433.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicines.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Lack Of Risk-Taking In Scientific Research Is Hurting Progress Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Aviation: FAA’s Use and Management of Communications Resources; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Backfish, M. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab’s Main Injector. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. The Russian Revolution, Without Fiction. New York Times 2017, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicines
ISSN (online)2227-9059

Other styles