How to format your references using the Biomedicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Corridor at the Crossroads: Michigan. Nature 2002, 420, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horner-Devine, M.C.; Martiny, A.C. Biogeochemistry. News about Nitrogen. Science 2008, 320, 757–758.
A journal article with 3 authors
Eagleman, D.M.; Jacobson, J.E.; Sejnowski, T.J. Perceived Luminance Depends on Temporal Context. Nature 2004, 428, 854–856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Dobson, A.P.; McKenzie, V.J.; Kuris, A.M. Introduced Species and Their Missing Parasites. Nature 2003, 421, 628–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neff, D.J.; Moss, R.C. The Future of Nonprofits; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118386781.
An edited book
Humanitarian and Relief Logistics: Research Issues, Case Studies and Future Trends; Zeimpekis, V., Ichoua, S., Minis, I., Eds.; Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; Vol. 54; ISBN 9781461470069.
A chapter in an edited book
Waterworth, J.; Hoshi, K. Bridging Contextual Gaps with Blended Reality Spaces. In Human-Experiential Design of Presence in Everyday Blended Reality: Living in the Here and Now; Hoshi, K., Ed.; Human–Computer Interaction Series; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 61–72 ISBN 9783319303321.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Earliest Stars 150 Million Years Older Than Previously Believed (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office FCC: Provision of Roaming Services by Commercial Mobile Radio Service Providers; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ariani, D. Amerindo International Nurse Recruitment Agency. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. Headaches Await a New E.U. Leader. New York Times 2017, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicines
ISSN (online)2227-9059

Other styles