How to format your references using the Biomedicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, J. A Long Shadow over Fukushima. Nature 2011, 472, 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, J.; Tong, L. Crystal Structure of the 500-KDa Yeast Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Holoenzyme Dimer. Nature 2015, 526, 723–727.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H.; Westhof, E.; Johansen, S. An MRNA Is Capped by a 2’, 5’ Lariat Catalyzed by a Group I-like Ribozyme. Science 2005, 309, 1584–1587.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Etcoff, N.L.; Ekman, P.; Magee, J.J.; Frank, M.G. Lie Detection and Language Comprehension. Nature 2000, 405, 139.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong, R.A.; Hilton, A.C. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470905173.
An edited book
BioNanoFluidic MEMS; Hesketh, P.J., Ed.; MEMS Reference Shelf; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2008; ISBN 9780387462813.
A chapter in an edited book
Dunbar, P.; Eblé, M.; Mungov, G.; McCullough, H.; Harris, E. NOAA’s Historical Tsunami Event Database, Raw and Processed Water Level Data, and Model Output Relevant to the 11 March 2011 Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. In Tsunami Events and Lessons Learned: Environmental and Societal Significance; Kontar, Y.A., Santiago-Fandiño, V., Takahashi, T., Eds.; Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; pp. 113–127 ISBN 9789400772687.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicines.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Outstanding Jurassic Fossils Rediscovered After More Than 100 Years Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Space Shuttle: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, L.L. Of Hell and High Water: Longitudinal Case Studies of the Internal and External Recovery Efforts of Non-Governmental Organizations after Hurricane Katrina. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. Rutgers Women Find Rhythm For 4th Straight Victory. New York Times 1999, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicines
ISSN (online)2227-9059

Other styles