How to format your references using the Biomedicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rejmánek, M. Ecology: Global trends in plant naturalization. Nature 2015, 525, 39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abrahamson, J.; Dinniss, J. Ball lightning caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightning strikes on soil. Nature 2000, 403, 519–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lacks, D.J.; Van Orman, J.A.; Lesher, C.E. Isotope fractionation in silicate melts. Nature 2012, 482, E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shiddiky, M.J.A.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Rauf, S.; Tay, Z.; Trau, M. Molecular nanoshearing: an innovative approach to shear off molecules with AC-induced nanoscopic fluid flow. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salleh, S.; Zomaya, A.Y.; Olariu, S.; Sanugi, B. Numerical Simulations and Case Studies Using Visual C++.Net; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471727255.
An edited book
Popovskij, V. Control and Adaptation in Telecommunication Systems: Mathematical Foundations; Barkalov, A., Titarenko, L., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 94; ISBN 9783642206139.
A chapter in an edited book
Noriega, P.; de Jonge, D. Electronic Institutions: The EI/EIDE Framework. In Social Coordination Frameworks for Social Technical Systems; Aldewereld, H., Boissier, O., Dignum, V., Noriega, P., Padget, J., Eds.; Law, Governance and Technology Series; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 47–76 ISBN 9783319335681.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicines.

Blog post
Fang, J. Our Ancestors Were Consuming Alcohol 10 Million Years Ago Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hurwitz, B.L. Viral community dynamics and functional specialization in the Pacific Ocean. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Supreme Court Could Hear An Alito Case. New York Times 2005, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicines
ISSN (online)2227-9059

Other styles