How to format your references using the Biomedicines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomedicines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reenan, R.A. Molecular Determinants and Guided Evolution of Species-Specific RNA Editing. Nature 2005, 434, 409–413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arimoto, T.; Sato, Y. Science and Society. Rebuilding Public Trust in Science for Policy-Making. Science 2012, 337, 1176–1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kryazhimskiy, S.; Draghi, J.A.; Plotkin, J.B. Evolution. In Evolution, the Sum Is Less than Its Parts. Science 2011, 332, 1160–1161.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Colwell, R.K.; Brehm, G.; Cardelús, C.L.; Gilman, A.C.; Longino, J.T. Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics. Science 2008, 322, 258–261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ballast, D.K. Interior Detailing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118259788.
An edited book
Proceedings of the 18th International Meshing Roundtable; Clark, B.W., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; ISBN 9783642043185.
A chapter in an edited book
Sezgin, E.; Özkan, S. Assessment of Information Technology Use in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Empirical Investigation in Five Cases. In Information Systems for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: State of Art of IS Research in SMEs; Devos, J., Landeghem, H. van, Deschoolmeester, D., Eds.; Progress in IS; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 97–121 ISBN 9783642382437.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomedicines.

Blog post
Fang, J. First Ever Swimming Dinosaur Ate Sharks Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1981;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subbarao, S. An 8-PSK Super Regenerative Receiver: Design and Simulation. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Robert Caro Nears End Of Research on L.B.J. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomedicines
ISSN (online)2227-9059

Other styles